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Chapter 24 *Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 24 *Lecture Outline
*See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chapter 24 Outline Functions of the Lymphatic System
Lymph and Lymph Vessels Lymphatic Cells Lymphatic Structures Aging and the Lymphatic System Development of the Lymphatic System

3 Functions Return interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream
Transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream 3. Production and maturation of lymphocytes Generate an immune response against antigens in the interstitial fluid

4 Figure 24.1

5 Components of the Lymphatic System
Lymphatic capillaries Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic trunks Lymphatic ducts Lymphatic cells Lymphatic nodules Lymphatic organs

6 Lymph Lymph is comprised of: Interstitial fluid Solutes
Foreign materials

7 Lymphatic Capillaries
Lymphatic capillaries are closed-ended tubes that are found interspersed among most blood capillary beds. They resemble blood capillaries but they have overlapping endothelial cells that act as one-way valves allowing interstitial fluid a one-way entrance into lymphatic capillaries.

8 Lymphatic Capillaries
Figure 24.2

9 Lymphatic Capillaries
The gastrointestinal tract contains specialized lymph capillaries called lacteals that collect not only interstitial fluid, but also lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. The lymph collected from the gastrointestinal system has a milky color due to the lipid absorption and is called chyle.

10 Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic capillaries merge to form lymphatic vessels. They resemble venules, in that they have components of all three vascular tunics and possess valves similar to veins. Afferent lymphatic vessels bring lymph to a lymph node. Efferent lymphatic vessels transport filtered lymph away from the lymph node.

11 Lymphatic Vessels and Valves
Figure 24.3

12 Lymphatic Trunks Left and right lymphatic trunks form from merging lymphatic vessels. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body, as follows: Jugular trunks—head and neck Subclavian trunks—upper limbs, breasts and superficial thoracic wall 3. Bronchiomediastinal trunks—deep thoracic structures 4. Intestinal trunks—most abdominal structures Lumbar trunks—lower limbs, abdominopelvic wall and pelvic organs

13 Lymphatic Trunks Figure 24.4

14 Lymphatic Ducts Lymphatic ducts are formed from the fusion of lymphatic trunks. The right lymphatic duct is located deep to the right clavicle and returns lymph at the junction of the right subclavian and internal jugular veins. The right lymphatic duct returns lymph from the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb and the right side of the thorax.

15 Lymphatic Ducts The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel.
It begins just inferior to the diaphragm as a rounded saclike structure called the cisterna chyli. The thoracic duct collects lymph from most of the body (excluding the right lymphatic duct drainage). The thoracic duct passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm and returns lymph into the junction between the left subclavian and internal jugular veins.

16 Lymphatic Ducts Figure 24.4

17 Thoracic Duct Figure 24.4

18 Lymphatic Cells There are several types of lymphatic cells that are located in the lymphatic and circulatory systems: Macrophages=Monocytes (leukocytes) Nurse cells=Epithelial at Thymus Dendritic cells=Epithelial at L. Nodules Lymphocytes=Most abundant

19 Types of Lymphocytes The body contains three types of lymphocytes:
T-lymphocytes (T-cells) B-lymphocytes (B-cells) Natural killer (NK cells) All three cell types migrate through the lymphatic system and search for the presence of antigens.

20 T-Lymphocytes Make up about 70–85% of body lymphocytes
They express a plasma membrane coreceptor (CD) that can recognize a particular antigen There are several types of T-lymphocytes; two main groups are: helper T-lymphocytes cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

21 Helper T-Lymphocytes Primarily contain the CD4 coreceptor and are referred to as CD4+ cells or T4 cells Many types of T4 cells, each one responds to a different antigen T4 cells initiate and oversee the immune response in two ways: present the antigen to other lymphocytes secrete cytokines, which are hormones that activate other lymphatic cells

22 Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Also called CD8+ cells or T8 cells, they contain the CD8 coreceptor Come in direct contact with infected or foreign cells and kill them Act only after activated by a helper T-lymphocyte that presents an antigen to it

23 Immune Response of T-Lymphocytes
Figure 24.5

24 B-Lymphocytes Make up about 15–30% of body lymphocytes
Contain antigen receptors to only one antigen and produce immunoglobulins or antibodies to that single antigen B-lymphocytes become activated when presented with an antigen from a helper T-lymphocyte

25 B-Lymphocytes Most of the activated B-lymphocytes become plasma cells that produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. Plasma cells may be either short-lived (less than a week) or long-lived (months or years). The long-lived B-lymphocytes are called memory B-lymphocytes and confer years or lifetime immunity to certain antigens.

26 B-Lymphocytes and Their Role in the Immune Response
Figure 24.6

27 NK (Natural Killer) Cells
Also called large granular lymphocytes Relatively small percentage of all lymphocytes Tend to express the CD16 receptors Unlike T-cells and B-cells that respond to one antigen, NK cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some cancerous cells

28 Types of Lymphocytes

29 Lymphopoiesis Lymphopoiesis is the process of lymphocyte development.
The final result of lymphopoiesis is that the lymphocyte becomes immunocompetent, meaning the cell can participate in the immune response. All lymphocytes originate in the red bone marrow but their maturation sites differ.

30 Lymphopoiesis Figure 24.7

31 Lymphatic Nodules Oval clusters of lymphatic cells with some extracellular matrix but not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule Center of nodule is called the germinal center; contains proliferating B-lymphocytes and macrophages T-lymphocytes located outside the germinal center Lymphatic nodules filter and attack antigens

32 MALT(Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue)
Lymphatic nodules located in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genital, and urinary tracts These nodules monitor and respond to antigens that may enter these tracts MALT is very prominent in the ileum; these nodules are called Peyer patches

33 MALT in Small Intestine
Figure 24.8

34 Tonsils Located mainly in the pharynx
Large clusters of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix that do not have a completed surrounding capsule Outer edges are invaginated to form crypts, which allow for trapping of antigens to be presented to the lymphocytes

35 Tonsils Figure 24.8

36 Tonsils There are three types of tonsils:
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)—located in the posterosuperior wall of the nasopharynx Palatine tonsils—located in the posterolateral wall of the oral cavity Lingual tonsils—located along the posterior one-third of the tongue

37 Lymphatic Organs Consists of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix and is completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule The main lymphatic organs are: thymus lymph nodes spleen

38 Thymus Bilobed organ located superficial to the heart
Consists of two fused thymic lobes, which are divided into lobules Each lobule has an outer cortex and an inner medulla Continues to grow until puberty and then begins to regress in size and function and, in adults, it becomes replaced mostly by adipose connective tissue

39 b,c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Dr. Alvin Telser
Thymus Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Trabecula Thyroid gland Right lung Left lung Thymus Capsule Cortex Lobule Medulla Heart Diaphragm LM 20x (b) Child’s thymus (a) Child’s thorax, anterior view Lymphocytes Thymic corpuscle Epithelial cells LM 320x (c) Thymic corpuscle b,c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Dr. Alvin Telser Figure 24.9

40 Function of Thymus Site of T-lymphocyte differentiation and maturation
Cortex contains immature T-lymphocytes Medulla contains mature T-lymphocytes In adulthood, T-lymphocytes can only be produced by cell division and not by the maturation of new cells in the thymus

41 Lymph Nodes Small, round or oval structures located along the pathway of lymph vessels Typically found in clusters ranging from 1–25 mm in diameter The primary function of a lymph node is to filter antigens from the lymph and initiate an immune response

42 Lymph Nodes Most apparent lymph node clusters occur as:
axillary lymph nodes inguinal lymph nodes cervical lymph nodes

43 Major Lymph Node Aggregations
Figure 24.1

44 Structure of Lymph Nodes
Surrounded by a tough connective tissue capsule Internal extensions of the capsule, trabeculae, project into the node Lymphatic cells surround the trabeculae and lymphatic sinuses provide a pathway for lymph flow

45 Structure of Lymph Nodes
Lymph node is divided into outer cortex and inner medulla Cortex consists of nodules and sinuses called cortical sinuses The medulla contains medullary cords and medullary sinuses Afferent vessels deliver lymph to the node Lymph exits nodes via efferent vessels at an indentation of the node called the hilum

46 Structure of Lymph Node
Figure 24.10

47 Spleen There are several functions of the spleen:
Initiates an immune response when antigens are found in blood (white pulp function) Serves as a reservoir for erythrocytes and platelets (red pulp function) Phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets (red pulp function) Phagocytizes bacteria and other foreign materials

48 Spleen Largest lymphatic organ in body just lateral to left kidney
A splenic artery/vein enter/leave the spleen via a hilum or indentation on its medial surface Spleen surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule, which sends extensions called trabeculae into the organ

49 Structure of Spleen Figure 24.11

50 Spleen Trabecular vessels (branches of splenic arteries and veins) extend within the trabeculae. Cells around the trabeculae are subdivided into white pulp and red pulp. Red pulp surrounds each cluster of white pulp.

51 Red and White Pulp of Spleen
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Central artery White pulp Red pulp Splenic sinusoids Trabecula Splenic cords Capsule (b) Red and white pulp of spleen Trabeculae Red pulp Central artery White pulp Capsule LM 40x Figure 24.11 (c) Histology of spleen c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Dr. Alvin Telser

52 Red and White Pulp of Spleen
The white pulp is associated with the arterial supply and consists of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages. In the center of each cluster is a central artery. The red pulp is associated with the venous supply. Red pulp consists of splenic cords and splenic sinusoids that contain erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, and some plasma cells. Blood cells can easily enter and leave the blood stream in the spleen because of the discontinuous basal lamina of the capillaries in the splenic sinusoids.

53 Lymphatic Structures and Organs

54 Development of the Lymphatic System
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular lymph sacs Retroperitoneal lymph sac Cisterna chyli Posterior lymph sacs (a) Week 6: Primary lymph sacs form Developing right lymphatic duct Jugular lymph sac Jugular lymph sac Superior vena cava Superior vena cava Developing thoracic duct Developing thoracic duct Cisterna chyli Cisterna chyli Figure 24.12 Posterior lymph sac Posterior lymph sac (b) Week 9: Lymph vessels connect to the lymph sacs (c) Fetal period: Right lymphatic and thoracic ducts form; lymph sacs will form lymph nodes

55 Development of the Thymus
Figure 24.13

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