Why consider co-products for sheep Cost Energy and crude protein (cents/lb) Forage substitution Animal performance Growth and lactation
Co-product Concerns and Conditions Handling and Storage Unique Nutrient Profiles Minerals -phosphorus, sulfur, copper Level of fat
What are dried distillers grains with solubles? The dry-mill ethanol production process uses only the starch portion of the corn, which is about 70% of the kernel. All the remaining nutrients – protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins – are concentrated into distillers grain. A bushel of corn will produce at least 2.8 gallons of ethanol and 18 pounds of distillers grain.
ItemCornDDGSCGFCCDSSH DM TDN % CP % Fat % Ca % P % S % Cu ppm366NA14 Summary - Coproduct Nutrient Composition **Expect significant plant to plant variation for CP and minerals
DDGS - Variability From University of Minnesota DDGS website
Common Characteristics of Co-products Energy and protein rich feeds highly fermentable fiber carbohydrates (NDF, ADF) low starch content reduces acidosis risk Limitations on livestock diet formulation mineral profile fat content Practical storage, handling and local availability will determine feasibility for incorporation into a feeding system. Sheep producers should consider dry stored coproducts that are economically valued. These coproducts are valued as energy feeds versus corn. DDGS – practical and cost effective
185 ethanol plants
US Ethanol Production Renewable Fuels Association, mil tons DDGS
Where does DDGS fit into Sheep Diets?????
DDGS Research-Lactating Ewes Protein- suckling lamb growth response similar for DDGS and SBM supplemented diets (Univ. of Kentucky) Energy- DDGS substituted for corn at 2 lb per head, 25 % of diet DM resulted in a slight positive performance response in triplet reared lambs. (Iowa State Univ.) Recommended maximum inclusion: –2 lb/hd/d or 25% of dietary DM
South Dakota State University DDGS Research-Lactation Diets South Dakota State University DDGS Research-Lactation Diets SDSU Lactation Trial –DDGS and soyhulls replacing hay to increase energy density during lactation Results: Higher milk production Higher lamb gain Excellent health status
DDGS Research-Lamb Mixed Diets Few studies with lambs fed DDGS in US –SDSU conducted 1 st feeding trial in 2004 –Response to producer inquiry Restrictions include meal form of product and mineral considerations – phosphorus Designed simple mixed diet formulation guidelines for on-site application »SDSU Extension publication EXEX 2053
Mixed Ration using DDGS
Whole Corn MDGS Liquid Supplement
South Dakota State University DDGS Research-Lamb Diets South Dakota State University DDGS Research-Lamb Diets SDSU Lamb Finishing Trials* –DDGS substitution for SBM –DDGS and corn or soyhulls Mixed ingredient diets Completely pelleted *ad-lib feeding management
Use of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles in Lamb Diets SDSU Sheep Research and Extension
Using Dried Distillers Grains as a Protein and Energy Source in Market Lamb Diets T. Hulls, A. Bartosh, R. Zelinsky, J. A. Daniel and A. Wertz-Lutz
Experimental Diets Corn-SBMCorn-DDGS Ingredient% (DMB) Soybean hulls10.0 DDGS Soybean meal Corn Dried Molasses2.4 Limestone TM salt0.1 Ammonium chloride0.5 Diets were formulated to be 14.5 % crude protein and isocaloric
Growth Performance Corn-SBMCorn-DDGSSEP
Carcass Merit Corn-SBMCorn-DDGSSEP
Conclusions –Huls., et. al. DDGS can be used as a protein and energy source in lamb finishing diets Excellent lamb growth performance and carcass merit Excellent health status However to be most cost effective should evaluate DDGS in a mixed ingredient diet
The effect of corn or soybean hull diets supplemented with DDGS in mixed diets on finishing lamb performance and carcass merit R. Zelinsky, J. A. Daniel, and J.E. Held
Experimental Design 80 white-faced and brockle-faced wethers and ewe lambs Conducted December 23, 2004 at 92 days of age (range 79 to 105) and fed for 64 days after a 7-d adaptation period Eight feeding pens with 10 lambs per pen Feed disappearance was recorded to calculate intake and feed to gain ratio. Average daily gain was determined in 3 wk intervals. Lambs were slaughtered and carcass data collected at a commercial packing plant. (Iowa Lamb Corp)
Experimental Diets Diets were formulated to contain 14 % crude protein Corn dietSoy hull diet DDGS17% Cracked Corn76%---- Pelleted soybean hulls----76% Limestone2% Liquid molasses2% White salt1% Commercial micro mineral and vitamin mix 0.25% Deccox0.1% Ammonium chloride0.5%
Growth and Performance Data Corn dietSoy hull dietP-value Initial weight (lbs)78.7 ± ± Final weight (lbs)127.6 ± ± Average daily gain (lbs/day) 0.77 ± ± Feed intake (lbs/head/day) 4.08 ± ± Feed to gain ratio5.13 ± ± Fines (lbs/head)0.42 ± ±
Corn Based (L) Soyhull Based Diets (R)
Carcass Data Corn dietSoy hull dietP-value Back Fat0.28 ± ± 0.01P = Bodywall thickness1.08 ± 0.03 P = Ribeye area2.76 ± ± 0.08P = Hot carcass weight69.0 ± ± 1.2P = USDA yield grade3.2 ± ± 0.1P = USDA quality gradeChoice P =
Conclusions - Zelinsky, et.al. DDGS was shown to be an excellent choice in mixed lamb finishing diet formulation. ADG at 0.78 lb/d met or exceeded expectations for growth performance. Residual feed (waste) for the soybean hull diet was approximately 40% of the corn diet. Soybean hulls fed to lambs consistently have higher intake compared to grain based diets.
DDGS Considerations - Lamb Feeding Residual feed waste in mixed ingredient diets - Adds more labor and feed cost - Diet sorting alters animal nutrient consumption Diet formulation must account for high levels of: Phosphorus - protect against urinary calculi - maintain Ca:P at 2:1 (P < 0.4%) - add ammonium chloride at 0.5% of dietary DM Sulfur – total dietary levels >0.3% risk for (PEM) - add 10 mg thiamine per lb of dietary DM
DDGS Recommendations- Lamb Feeding Up to 20% of dietary DM is practical –16 % CP growing or finishing mixed diet. Mixed diet with DDGS is ideal for bunk fed lambs, can use in ad lib feeding system. Must have high management skills DDGS and pelleted soyhulls compliment –Ca:P ratio and lower residual feed versus corn/DDGS
DDGS Summary Lamb Feeding DDGS use in lamb finishing diets promotes excellent lamb growth performance, carcass merits and health status. DDGS and soyhulls can serve as the sole energy, protein and fiber sources in lamb finishing diets.
For more details on SDSU Sheep DDGS Research Principal Investigators: Zelinsky, R.D., Wertz-Lutz, A.E. and J.E. Held SDSU Animal and Range Sciences EX EX 2052 and 2053