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Energy Efficiency in IPPC installations,

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Efficiency in IPPC installations,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Efficiency in IPPC installations,
October 2004 in Vienna Austria Trend Parkhotel Schönbrunn Innovative examples of energy efficiency in the German sugar industry - dewatering and drying process for sugar beet pulp - Dipl.-Ing. Christian Voß Südzucker AG for the German Association of Sugar Industry Werk Warburg, D Warburg Tel / 9413 U MWELT B UNDES A MT, Berlin Postfach , D Berlin Tel. 030/ Dr.- Ing. Joachim Wieting

2 Structure 1. Introduction (targets and development of the specific energy requirement) 2. Mechanical dewatering process for sugar beet pulps in the sugar industry as regards energy 3. Drying processes (drum drying, low temperature drying and evaporation drying) 4. Energy aspects of pulp drying 5. Comparison of energy consumption and the economics of different types of installations with examples 6. Characterisation of the technology – economic and ecological aspects

3 Background and Motivation
With the finalisation of the Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning „Integrated pollution prevention and control“, the so-called „IPPC Directive“, the concept of an integrated approach to reduce environmental pollution is being pursued at European Community level for the first time, with all installations covered by the directive now requiring permits. The EU Commission is supporting the implementation of the directive as part of its exchange of information by having leaflets compiled on the „best available techniques (BAT)“ by the European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau in Sevilla, Spain.

4 Background and Motivation
The „food, drink and milk“ BREF gives information at community level on the best available techniques in the sugar industry to help promote the use of these techniques and to support the member countries effectively in their efforts to protect the environment. The efficient use of energy in the industry helps avoid and/or control emissions in the air, in water and in the ground as far as possible. The formulation of the directive into a new VDI guideline in Germany will set out primary and secondary control measures and new reduced emission figures for production technology.

5 precautions in the interest of the climate
Introduction precautions in the interest of the climate Agreement between German sugar industry and the government board signed on : Reduction of the specific CO2 emissions of 41 – 45 % by 2005/06 Base year 1990: CO2 emissions/beet kg/t Target year 2005/06: 81 – 87 kg/t achieved 2000/01: 84 kg/t with kWh/ton of beet Target achievement: almost 100 %

6 Specific energy consumption in the
Introduction Specific energy consumption in the German sugar industry kWh / 100 kg beets 125 100 75 current 1996: 50 30,6 ABL DDR / NBL 25 D, ges basis 1990: target 2005 : 35,6 29 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 year ABL = old Federal states NBL = new Federal states D = Germany as a whole

7 Specific energy consumption in the
Introduction Specific energy consumption in the German sugar industry Since 1990 > 300 Million € have been invested in projects for combined heat and power generation (CHP). Degree of efficiency of heat and power combinations > 90 % re-use of the heat several times normalf = 7 – 8 Future: physical limits increasing technical expenditure (costs) marginal energy savings ______________________________________________________ Personal remarks on sugar market regulation

8 Energy conversion in a beet sugar factory
Introduction Energy conversion in a beet sugar factory and VDI extra edition 2594 Main flows of energy and technical processes are more closely interlinked than in any other sector of industry. Amount of energy used Sugar production : Dried pulp production : VDI-Guideline „Emission reduction in pulp drying plants in the sugar industry“, First printed August 2004

9 of the dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of the dewatering process for beet cossettes Production of dried pulp with 90 % dry substance and 10 % water from extracted cossettes with 10 (- 14) % dry substance and 90 % water in 2 dewatering stages: mechanical thermal Amount of energy used kWh/t water approx. 30 approx : Target: To remove as much water as possible mechanically.

10 of the dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of the dewatering process for beet cossettes State of the art: Spindle presses horizontal/vertical pulp inlet screen ring, axially relocatable for pressing pressure variation press water collector pulp outlet

11 of dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of dewatering process for beet cossettes Quantity of material pressed out depends on capacity of presses - Hardening with calcium ions (gypsum), Development by Südzucker (SZ): 34 3,4 32 3,2 30 3 28 2,8 Dry-substance content in Water carrying in kg Water/ Press-pulps in % kg Dry-substance content 26 2,6 24 2,4 22 2,2 20 2 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 Campaign Dry-substance content in % Watercarying in kg Water/kg Dry-substance content SZ-Pressing target before drying: 32.5 % dry substance in the pressed pulp

12 of dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of dewatering process for beet cossettes Other mechanical dewatering processes % dry substance in the pressed pulp Diffusive dewatering: in combination with evaporation plant to concentrate the press water Disadvantage:  no suitable separation of solids/liquids High-pressure, multi-layer pressing: Filter band press: 300 bar; 15 min. pressing time Disadvantage:  no suitable filter cloth quality no reliable control of the 300 hydraulic control loops Extraction under alkaline conditions – 50 Pilot installations in France, Germany and England

13 of dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of dewatering process for beet cossettes Combination of electroporation and alkaline extraction Alkaline extraction results in increased deposits of calcium ions and thus to a definite increase in the pressability of the extracted cossettes Dry substance (DS) content of extracted cossettes : % (an increase of approx. 10 % DS) Opening the cells by electroporation to prepare for deposit of calcium ions opening the cell membranes by high voltage impulses high voltage impulses: a voltage of several hundred kV for the duration of approx. 1 µsec • low energy demand: approx. 1 kWh/t beet

14 of dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of dewatering process for beet cossettes Changes in the mechanical properties of beet due to electroporation Electroporation increases the flexibility of the cossettes considerably and enables them to stand up to heavier mechanical stress.

15 of dewatering process for beet cossettes
Energy aspects of dewatering process for beet cossettes beets Possible configuration of electroporation and extraction * electroporation electroporated beets electroporated and alkalined cossettes slicing machine lime mash * patent applied for juice towards juice purification

16 Steam system of a sugar factory with steam drying
Drying process Steam system of a sugar factory with steam drying

17 Steam system of a sugar factory with
Drying process Steam system of a sugar factory with steam drying

18 Energy aspects of cossettes drying
In order to consider the energy aspects of the installations described, the general data of the factories with both direct and indirect dewatering systems have been standardised as follows: ·   Beet processing tons/day ·    Length of „campaign“ (season) 90 days p.a. ·    Mass flow of pressed pulp: 160 kg/t beet processed = 66,7 tons/h ·    Dry substance content of the pressed pulp 31 % ·    Dry substance content of the dried pulp 90 % ·    Steam consumption of a sugar factory for 200 kg/t processed beet = 83.4 t/h ·    Live steam pressure 85 bar ·    Live steam temperature 525 °C ·    Thermal value of the fuel kJ/kg .

19 Energy aspects of cossettes drying
·   Electrical energy demand of the sugar factory without drying 10.4 MW = kWh/t beet processed ·   Complete crystallisation of the thick juice in the beet campaign These norms pre-suppose that the factories have the following technical installations: ·    A steam generator with 85 bar and 525 °C. ·    A corresponding back pressure turbine bar back pressure to supply the evaporation station or 3 bar back pressure and 25 bar extraction pressure to supply the steam dryer. ·    A gas turbine to reduce the use of electric energy when using a steam dryer. · A effluent treatment plant which can process the condensed vapours from the evaporation dryer. .

20 Summary of the examples of installations
Steam dryer High temperature dryer Low/high temperature dryer Factory without a dryer Total electric energy demand MW 11.55 11.20 12.10 10.40 Total fuel energy 73.72 111.83 104.80 67.13 Total electric energy obtained 11.48 11.66 Total energy costs €/h 1,182 1,780 1,695 1,048 Total energy costs per campaign 103 €/a 2,532 3,845 3,661 2,264

21 Summary of the examples of installations
Additional energy costs in comparison to a factory without dryers for the individual variations: High temperature dryers € Low/high temperature dryers € Steam dryers € Operation related costs (higher investment costs of installations in comparison to lower fuel costs in operation) High temperature dryers € p.a. Low/high temperature dryers € p.a. Steam dryers € p.a.

22 Summary of the examples of installations
Investment costs plus net running costs of the dryer for the individual variations: High temperature dryers Mio. € Low/high temperature dryers Mio. € Steam dryer Mio. € Characterisation of the technology: At the present time steam drying is the best available technique for new sugar factory construction or for complete reconstruction of energy production and heat control systems. However, it cannot be integrated easily into a normal existing factory.

23 Advantages achieved by
steam drying Main achievement - Improvements for the environment with regard to emissions and energy consumption: Emissions are avoided by direct primary use of energy for drying. No application of steam-volatile and odorous vapours. Energy consumption 30% less than in a factory with direct drying. Inter-media effects Transfer of the exhaust fumes into the effluent (approx m3 effluent with a chemical oxygen requirement of mg/l and a NH4-content of 25 mg/l).

24 THANK YOU In conclusion we should like to thank all those who participated - the members of the VDI working group 2594, the participating companies in the Sugar Association and all of you for your attention. THANK YOU


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