Presentation on theme: "PULP- refined plant fibre Wood and other plant materials contain three main components (apart from water): cellulose fibres (desired for papermaking),"— Presentation transcript:
PULP- refined plant fibre Wood and other plant materials contain three main components (apart from water): cellulose fibres (desired for papermaking), cellulosefibrespapermaking lignin (a three-dimensional polymer that binds the cellulose fibres together) and lignin cellulose hemicelluloses, (shorter branched carbohydrate polymers). hemicelluloses
World Wide Paper Consumption In 1961 =78 million tones. In 2005 =365 million tones Projections show by 2020 – will reach 494 million tones Average growth rate of 2 per cent a year. Ethiopian Consumption In 1996= 54,000 tones/yr In 2007= 80,000 tones/yr Average growth rate of 6 per cent a year
Per-capita consumption = 1kg/p/y (Lowest) Country Per capita consumption, kg/yr USA 332 KOREA 159 CHINA 29 INDIA 05 ETHIOPIA 01 WORLD AVERAGE54
FUTURE TREND IN ETHIOPIA AND WORLD WIDE Little can happen in modern life without paper It's almost impossible to imagine development without paper. The ongoing economic development and livelihood improvement in Ethiopia inevitably would create huge demand of pulp and paper products. Expansions of schools and universities Increasing of Manufacturing sectors that needs packaging and wrapping Household consumption will increase THE CONSUMPTION AND DEMAND WILL INCREASE !!
Ethiopia doesn’t produce pulp There are over 22 companies involved in paper making and trading businesses in Ethiopia, only ‘Wonji’ and ‘Barguba’ plc uses imported pulp for their paper mills while others import already produced paper rolls for further processing 10,000 tones/yr pulps imported at a cost of 8 million USD Only some 30% of the country’s paper demand is produced in the country. Every year the country spend 72 million USD/yr Pulping and paper making industry in Ethiopia is at its infant stage !!
General System Unless and otherwise there is a capital constraints, the most advisable is to establish an Integrated production system. This is an installation in which the production of paper is directly connected with the production of pulp proposed pulp mill would have a capacity of 100 tones/day=30,000 tones/yr
The fiber source for the proposed pulp mill in the region : 1. Currently available and already developed sources 2. Potentially to be available in near future
1. Currently available and already developed sources Eucalyptus and Bamboo are known for their quality pulp in the world market. Strength Brightness High Opacity
Strategies of fetching the existing resources A. Outgrowers scheme B. Concession of state forests C. Own plantation
Unseen and underestimated forest resources in the region. The trend is more lands including farmlands has been and will be converted to wood lots (mainly eucalyptus spp. Framers once they are librated from subsistence farming, they prefer to invest on forestry for the following reasons: The fertility of the land is decreasing that become more preferable for crops than trees Environmental risk mainly erratic rainfall is more series for crops than trees more market is created for woods than ever before Outgrowing forests are mainly developed by: Communities and their institutions (municipalities, Pas, cooperatives, churches, etc) smallholder investors, Individual farmers, on shelterbelts, home gardens, woodlots and a diverse range of agroforestry systems.
a. Eucalyptus globules Among the many Eucalyptus species E. globules is the best pulping species. In Amhara region almost all zones and woredas are rich with this species. But from easy accessibility and marketing the following focal areas are very attractive: DebereTabor-Gashena and its vicinity Dessie and its vicinity DebreBrihan and its vicinity Tarmaber-Menze and its vicinity DebreMarkos and its vicinity Enjibara and its vicinity are potential areas of well developed outgrowers’ scheme for this species.
Start up catchments for E.globules i. Debre Tabor to Gashena 20,700 ha Eucalyptus woodlot currently. ii. Dangela to Addis-Alem 15,000 ha Eucalyptus woodlot currently. iii.10 km radius of Debremarkos town 2500 ha Eucalyptus woodlot currently. These three woodlot catchments with a maximum distance of 280 km from Bahirdar, currently there is nearly 38,200 ha with estimated wood volume of 3,056,000 m3 with MIA of 10m3/ha owned by out growers.
b. Eucalyptus camaldlusis The second important eucalyptus species for pulp making. In Amahra, region this species is found in a mid altitude areas (1700-2400 masl). The major potential areas for this species in respect to this project are: Bahirdar-Dera-Fogera-Estie Bahirdar-Marawi-Dangela Awi(Adds- Alem)- Bure- Fenoteselam Engibara-Chagni Gondar town and its vicinity In all these areas with a maximum distance of 200 km from Bahirdar currently there is 20,000 ha with estimated wood volume of 1,500,000 m3 owned by outgrowers.
Bamboo (Highland + Lowland) The major Fetching catchments for highland Bamboo are: Awi zone : Banja, Guagusa, Shkudad, Injibara town adminstartion, Fagita Lekoma and Ankasha Woredas West Gojam- Sekela, Dega damot and Quarit East Gojam- Sinan and Bibugi South Gondar-Farta and Eastern Estie The major Fetching catchments for Lowland Bamboo are: Awi zone- Jawi, Guangua and Ankesha North Gondar- Quara, Metema, West and Tach Armachiho and Adiarkay.
Type of Resource Total available forest, ha Total available Volume of wood, m3 Amount of wood to be fetched (1/3)*, m3 Potential Pulp production, tone** # Years to feed the mill*** Eu. globules38,2003,056,0001,018,666169,7775.6 Eu. camaldulesis20,0001,500,000500,00083,3332.7 bamboo 1600128,00042,6667,1110.24 Lowland bamboo5000 Total Resource64,800 4,6840,00 1,561,332260,2228.6 Summary of the resources by the out-grower scheme and Indications Remarks * all the available resources are not expected to come to solely to the company. There are others like own utilization other users Environmental reason ** Conversion rate is 1 tone of dried pulp = 4 tones of green wood log=6 m3 of green wood log 0.6 tones of green wood=1m3 of green wood Average 6-8 years of age eucalyptus wood lot would have 80m3 of wood/ha *** the proposed pulp mill would have a capacity of 100 tones/day=30,000 tones/yr. This would require 120000 tones of wood=200,000 m3 of wood = needs to harvest 2500 ha
Already established state forests Up to 25000 ha!
2. Potentially to be available in near future Bagasse is a sugarcane fiber After the sugar is sacked the remaining cellouse is source of fiber. Most sugar factories use this by product as a source of energy for the factory, however there is always excess products that can be used for pulping. In near future Tana_Beles and Tendaho sugar factories will be established.
Opportunities There is already the resource base for pulping industry in the region in different forms that enables to begin pulping industry: Extensive Eucalyptus spp with trend of expansion Extensive Bamboo spp which are one of the priority species among the hard woods for pulping Compared to others wider and suitable ecological basis for growing variety of tree species with short rotation period for pulp industry both for long and short fibre species. The ongoing economic development and livelihood improvement in Ethiopia inevitably would create huge market of pulp and paper products
Cont… The range of possible uses for pulp and paper products are almost limitless that gives wider market possibilities : Writing and publishing materials Wrapping and Packing materials Sanitation materials Decorating materials Paper boards Raw material for further products (e.g. pencil)
Cont… The size of trees that could be used for pulping is much lower than any other forest industrial products which in turn reduces the gestation period of forest investment and financial return periods both for the subsistence farmers and investors Untapped resources from used paper and pulp products that could be recycled
Alternative Uses Unprocessed Eth Birr/m3 End product Eth Birr/m3 Value added in % Remark Fuel wood100-150 0 Construction wood150-300 0 Chipwood3001000333 Pulp3001296432 1 tone of dried pulp =5.4 m3 of woods =7000 birr Paper3001666-2222555-7401 tone of paper =5.4 m3 of woods =9000 -1200 birr
Major determining factor of competitiveness in pulping industry is the cost of wood !!
Scenario 1- Current situation
Scenario 2- Worst situation
Criteria Huge water supply (3million lit/day (34 lit/sec) Effluent stream with minimum environmental harms (Diluting effect) Optimal distance to the wood supply Easy transport Labor availability Land availability for mill and accessory establishment Workers’ accommodation facility Infrastructure mainly telephone, electricity and other health and education facility
Accordingly BahirDar-Tis Abay along the Abay river Abay has a discharge of 9.7 billion lit/day (113,300 lit/sec),which offers reliable fresh water and 1:3320 diluting effect for waste water Little downstream effect Optimal distance to major wood sources North Gondar, North Wello, South Gondar, Awi, West Gojam and East Gojam zones.
Brings Economic transformation through creating backward and forward linkage: Subsistence Farmers and Farmers based institutions (PAs, Cooperatives, Schools, Religious institutions ) Commercial forest growers Local traders including transporters Small and micro enterprises Intermediate Consumers (Manufacturing industries) Final Consumers As a result the industry will play pivotal role in creating value chain.
Cont. Plays not only saving foreign exchange but also generates foreign exchange Creates huge amount of employment opportunity at various level (From Tree planting, harvesting, transporting to processing and marketing) It is the best alternative to make use of the existing and expanding Eucalyptus resources of the region
Integrated system mill (Pulp + Paper Mill) 30-40 million USD High Initial Investment but profitable !!