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Modelling Fiber Suspensions Flows Using Rheological Data M. Graça Rasteiro COSt Action FP1005 meeting Nancy, October 2011 Portugal

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Objectives Overview of work being developed Rheological characterization Pilot rig CFD model Results Future work Overview UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Objectives Flow properties of pulp suspensions are important for the optimization of most unit operations in pulp and paper making. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the specific hydrodynamic features of fibre suspensions. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Plug Flow Mixed Flow Turbulent Flow Pulp suspensions flowing in pipes exhibit three basic types of shear flow mechanisms: Objectives water Plug flow Turbulent flow Transition flow UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Objectives Construction of a flow model able to predict the flow behaviour of pulp fibre suspensions represents an important step in this area. The Turbulence Model is one of the simplest and most used turbulence models for industrial applications. Modifications to the k- ε model can lead to an efficient description of the flow of concentrated fiber suspensions. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Strategy: Pseudo-Homogeneous Model Knowledge of the rheological behaviour is essential for the construction of a realistic model.

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Overview of the research developed Rheological characterization of fiber suspensions (different fiber types and consistencies). -new rotational rheometer (Searl effect) developed at UCM UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Development of models for the rheology of fiber suspensions. ( Carla A.F. Ventura, A. Blanco, C. Negro, F.A.P. Garcia, P. Ferreira, M.G. Rasteiro, "Modelling Pulp Fibre Suspension Rheology", Tappi J, 6, 7, (2007). ) Identification of the main parameters with a stronger impact on the rheology of fiber suspensions. ( Carla A.F. Ventura, A. Blanco, C. Negro, F.A.P. Garcia, P. Ferreira, M.G. Rasteiro, "Modelling Pulp Fibre Suspension Rheology", Tappi J, 6, 7, (2007). )

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Overview of the research developed Pilot rig for the study of the flow of fiber suspensions in pipes. -Flow tests varying fiber type, suspension consistency, temperature, pipe diameter and material. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Identification of the main parameters with a stronger impact on the flow regimen. ( Carla Ventura, Fernando Garcia, Paulo Ferreira, Maria Rasteiro; "Flow Dynamics of Pulp Fibre Suspensions", Tappi J, 7, 8, (2008). ) New set of design correlations for friction factor vs Reynolds number based on a statistical design, showing the dependence on consistency and pipe diameter for two flow regimes. ( Carla A.F. Ventura, Fernando Garcia, Paulo Ferreira, Maria Rasteiro, "Modelling Pipe Friction Loss of Pulp Fibre Suspensions", CHERD (2011) – in revision. ) Modelling of the flow of fiber suspensions in pipes- turbulent regime – pseudo-homegeneous approach. ( Carla A.F. Ventura, Fernando Garcia, Paulo Ferreira, Maria Rasteiro, "Modelling the Turbulent Flow of Pulp Suspensions”, I&ECR, 50,16, 9735–9742 (2011).)

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Rheological characterization New plate rotational Rheometer – Searl effect UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Induces uniform fibre distribution Measures shear in the rotor (mobile plate) and in the vessel (fixed plate) Calculates the difference between torque applied by the rotor and torque transmitted by the fluid to the vessel Analytical scales; 2-Arms to measure torque; 3-Rotor; 4-Vessel; 5-Computer connected to the scales; 6-device to control velocity

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Rheological characterization Suspensions tested: UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Pulp Type Fibre length (mm) Consistencies % (w/w) Recycled pulp 1.14± – 4.23 Eucalypt bleached kraft pulp 0.71± – 3.5 Eucalypt (90%) + pine (10%) bleached pulp 0.61± – 3.2 Pine unbleached kraft pulp 2.56 ± – 3.6

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Rheological characterization Typical Rheograms UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA (Nm -2 ) C=3.2% C=2.5 % C=2.2 % C=1.9 % C=1.6% C=1.2 % C=0.9 % pine + eucalyptus suspension ap (Pa.s)

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Rheological characterization y - yield stress k – consistency coefficient n – flow index UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA -Using an experimental design the influence of fibre characteristics (length), consistency and temperature on y were evaluated. - n an k are mainly influenced by consistency Herschel-Bulkley model - Yield stress increases with consistency and fibre length - Temperature has got a negative effect on yield stress See: Ventura C, Blanco A, Negro C, Ferreira P, Garcia F, Rasteiro M, Tappi J, 6 (7) 17 (2007)

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Objective: Flow model To model the turbulent flow of pulp fibre suspensions in pipes using CFD(FEM). UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Pseudo-Homogeneous Model COMSOL Multiphysics Software, version 3.5 Modified k-ε model.

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Pilot rig Pilot Rig UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Pilot rig Pilot Rig UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Pulp type effect Pipe -3”SS Experimental Results- pressure drop pulp UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Details of Governing Equations Equations for the turbulence intensity and length scales Turbulence damping assumed – I and l were adjusted depending on fiber type and consistency. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Equation for ε Equation for k I – turbulence intensity scaling parameter l - turbulence length scaling parameter Viscosity was supplied as a function of local shear rate in the pipe cross-section (data extracted from the rheograms).

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Results - Modelling Experimental data UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Pulp Type Consistencies % SS Pipes and PE Pipes 3 ” and 4 ” Recycled pulp 1.4 – 4.23 Eucalypt bleached kraft pulp 1.45 – 3.5 Eucalypt (90%) + pine (10%) bleached pulp 0.9 – 3.2 Pine unbleached kraft pulp 0.8 – 3.6

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Turbulence parameters values Pulp typeTurbulence Parametersvery low consistencieslow consistencies Recycled Consistency (%) I l Eucalypt Consistency (%) I l0.005 Eucalypt + pine Consistency (%) I l0.005 Pine Consistency (%) I l0.005 UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Results - Modelling

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Comparison between predicted and experimental pressure drop (Pa/m) for the turbulent regime UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA c) eucalypt+pined) pine a) recycledb) eucalypt

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Results - Modelling Turbulence intensity scaling parameter versus suspension consistency UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Future work ▪ Introduce in the model experimental information on the turbulence damping. ▪ Modify the transport equations for k and ε to include mechanistic damping terms. Establish quantitative correlations for the turbulence intensity and length scales, as a function of fiber characteristics and consistency. ▪ Model the intermediate regime (plug of fibers + water annulus). Acquire experimental information on the fiber plug evolution with Reynolds number (different fiber types and consistencies), using tomographic techniques. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Acknowledgments: RAIZ – Instituto Investigação da Floresta e Papel; Gopaca, S.A.; Prado Karton, S.A.; Soporcel - Grupo Portucel Soporcel; CELTEJO - Empresa de Celulose do Tejo, S.A.; European Project NODESZELOSS; FCT Project FIBERFLOW; UCM; Carla Ventura Carla Cotas Joy Iglesias F. Garcia Paulo Ferreira UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Thank you for your attention UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Conclusions ▪ The pressure drop profiles obtained using COMSOL Multiphysics Software agree very well with the experimental results obtained. ▪ The use of the k-ε Turbulence Model, associated with the rheological data acquired in a specially built viscometer, revealed to be a good strategy for the prediction of pressure drop values for fibre suspension flow. ▪ For very low consistencies the I value is minimally influenced by the consistency increase. ▪ For relatively high values of consistency, as consistency increases, the I values decrease for all the pulps tested. This boundary is dependent on the fibre type. The turbulence damping is higher in the case of the pine suspensions (longer and stiffer fibres), being lower for the recycled fibres suspension. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Results - Modelling Comparison with experimental data UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Results and Discussion Simulated pressure drop for the flow of the recycled pulp suspension with 2.7% (w/w) consistency, at a velocity of 4.8 m/s. Numerical Implementation First, the numerical implementation was validated with water. Then, the pulp’s physical characteristics were introduced in the model. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Results and Discussion Numerical Implementation UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Kinetic energy profile for the recycled fibre suspension 0.72% consistency

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Results and Discussion Numerical Implementation UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Kinetic energy profile for the recycled fibre suspension 2.7% consistency

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Governing Equations Constant Value Continuity equation Conservation of momentum Transport Equation for k Transport Equation for ε model constants: UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Standard k- ε model

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Numerical Implementation For the CFD modelling the Chemical Engineering module of COMSOL Multiphysics Software version 3.5 was used. Geometry 4 m The system to be modelled is basically a linear pipe (3 in diameter and 1 m long) where a pulp fibre suspension is flowing. 2D axial symmetry. UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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2D axial symmetry: mesh mode In order to reach accurate results for the pressure drop, the mesh selected was a mapped mesh consisting of quadrilateral elements. The mesh is more refined near the wall to resolve the viscous sublayer. Numerical Implementation UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Physics and Boundaries Numerical Implementation Inlet Boundary Plug type cross section velocity profile; The existence of particles, such as fibres, in a fluid flow induces a turbulence damping, thus the L and I values should be smaller then usually assumed for homogeneous fluids Since the turbulent length scale is mentioned to be mainly dependent on the system geometry, it’s value was assumed to be constant for all the fibre types and all the consistencies. The intensity scale parameter was adjusted according to the pulp fibre type and concentration. Outlet Boundary“Normal Stress, Normal Flow” function WallLogarithm wall function, Symmetry Boundary Axial Symmetry UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA

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Friction Factor

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Friction factor results Friction Factor: Eucalypt pulp Re Cf

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Friction Factor: distinct pulps Friction factor results

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Friction Factor Correlations for not only as a function of Reynolds number, but also showing the dependence on consistency and pipe diameter for a range of pulp suspensions and for two different flow regimes were obtained;

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Rheological characterization Typical rheogram for a pulp fibre suspension UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA Newtonian fluid τDτD τYτY

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Rheological characterization Typical Rheograms UNIVERSITY of COIMBRA C=3.6% C=3.3 % C=2.9 % C=2.3 % C=1.9% C=1.5 % C=1.0 % Pine suspension (Nm -2 ) ap (Pa.s)

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