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CQVB Jan 13, 2009 Bioproducts from Dissolving Pulp Manufacturing January 13, 2009 Michael Paice
2 © FPInnovations FPInnovations: Largest National Integrated Forest Research Institute –Paprican (pulp & paper), Forintek (wood manufacturing), FERIC (logging) and Canadian Fibre Centre –Member-based research program is supplemented by contract research and consulting for companies around the world –Bioenergy and biorefinery research is largely conducted out of our two pulp & paper facilities –Paprican - 228 scientists and technicians, 15 FTEs on biorefinery research Paprican Pointe Claire, QC Paprican Vancouver, BC
3 © FPInnovations Canadian Market Kraft Industry Ten out of 43 kraft mills have closed in the last four years Remaining mills need to diversify their product portfolio Dissolving pulp from pre-hydrolysis kraft process is established technology Presents an opportunity to make use of hemicellulose stream
4 © FPInnovations PULP PULP DRYER or PAPER MACHINE Pulp DIGESTER(S) WOOD SUPPLY BROWNSTOCK WASHING BLEACH PLANT Wood Chip Prehydrolysis Prehydrolyzed Wood Chips Separation Stage Prehydrolyzate Xylose Sugar oligomers Acetic acid Phenolics Xylitol Furfural Ethanol Potential Chemical Products from Kraft Mill
5 © FPInnovations Hardwood Prehydrolysis Kraft What are the optimum prehydrolysis conditions? –Must produce pulp to meet customer specifications –Maximize byproduct stream yield and concentration What products are in the initial prehydrolyzate? Can they be used without further conversion or separation? What are the potential product markets? What technology can be used to produce marketable products?
6 © FPInnovations Characterization of Kraft Prehydrolyzates Sugars: –Monosaccharides: arabinose, xylose, mannose galactose, glucose. –Oligosaccharides: galactoglucomannan, glucuronoxylan, etc. Other chemical compounds: –Acetic acid –Furfural, Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) –Phenolic compounds
7 © FPInnovations Major Sugar from Hardwoods More than 10% of wood can be recovered as xylose
8 © FPInnovations Some Conversion of Xylose to Furfural
9 © FPInnovations Options for the Prehydrolyzate The prehydrolyzate stream can be used as a feedstock to: –The mill recovery cycle for the production of steam and electricity, but this limits pulp production –A fermentation plant for the production of ethanol –A chromatographic/ crystallization system for the purification of xylose and xylitol –A further acid treatment to produce furfural
10 © FPInnovations Ethanol Price and Market Size Price currently dictated by price of corn and barrel of oil Market size: 64 billion L/y by 2022 (US target) Typical prehydrolysis kraft mill could produce about 25 million L/y Assumes that major sugar product (xylose) can be efficiently fermented
11 © FPInnovations Pentose-Fermenting Yeasts Pentose-fermenting yeasts were discovered in 1981- 1982 by Canadian Henry Schneider Problems still exist: –Glucose and mannose will be used preferentially over xylose and arabinose –Low ethanol tolerance –Sensitive to various inhibitors found in lignocellulosic substrates Working with U Concordia/Guelph to improve strains: –Saccharomyces cerevisiae: classical mutagenesis or xylose isomerase expression. –Pichea stipitis: mutagenesis or genome shuffling
12 © FPInnovations Xylitol - anticariogenic sweetener Largest producer is Danisco Current (2000) world market size for polyols is 1.4 million tonnes (US$1.6 billion) Xylose is purified by chromatography and crystallization, then hydrogenated to xylitol H2H2
13 © FPInnovations Furfural H + xylose furfural Produced by acid dehydration of xylose
14 © FPInnovations Market Size for Furfural Global production in 2001 was 225,000 tonnes Most furfural is now produced in China, where capacity is 150,000-200,000 tonnes/y Prices have fallen over the last 20 years from $1740/tonne in 1990 to ~ $1000/tonne today A 1000 tonne/d hardwood kraft pulp mill could produce about 90 tonnes/d of xylose If all the xylose is converted to furfural such a mill will have the potential of producing 27500 tonnes/y Several hardwood kraft mills exist in Canada and the North Eastern part of the US
15 © FPInnovations Current Focus at FPInnovations Working with dissolving pulp mill to implement bioproduct diversification Investigating possibilities for conversion of other kraft mills Looking at new products based on analysis of hydrolyzates Separation and conversion technologies are needed Market size must be appropriate for mill capacity
16 © FPInnovations The Future Biorefinery ….based on the kraft mill?
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