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Contact Details: Ensis Papro Private Bag 3020 Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND Ensis Papro INDUSTRY SEMINAR PULP FIBERS FOR THE.

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Presentation on theme: "Contact Details: Ensis Papro Private Bag 3020 Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND Ensis Papro INDUSTRY SEMINAR PULP FIBERS FOR THE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contact Details: Ensis Papro Private Bag 3020 Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND Ensis Papro INDUSTRY SEMINAR PULP FIBERS FOR THE FUTURE PRESENTED BY DR PAUL KIBBLEWHITE World Leading Authority on Kraft and Mechanical Pulp Fibre from Forest to Paper Product End-Use

2 ENSIS PAPRO INDUSTRY SEMINARS TABLE OF CONTENTS February 2006 PULP FIBRES OF THE FUTURE 1.SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD KRAFT PULPS OF THE FUTURE 2.MARKET KRAFT PULPS OF THE FUTURE 3.FIBRE INFLUENCES ON PROCESS AND PRODUCT: FOREST TO END-USE 4.PRODUCT-DRIVEN EUCALYPT-FIBRE SELECTION FOR PAPERMAKING 5.WOOD-FIBRE FOR FUTURE PRODUCTS FROM PULP 6.KRAFT PULP REFINING 7.SOME SOFTWOOD KRAFT REINFORCEMENT ISSUES 8.MECHANICAL PULP FIBRE, FINES AND WOOD QUALITY ISSUES 9.FIBRE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS OF FIBRE-CEMENT COMPOSITES 10.FIBRE INFLUENCES ON LINERBOARD QUALITY 11.FIBRE INFLUENCES ON TISSUE QUALITY 12.QUALITIES OF RECYCLED FIBRES PRODUCT-DRIVEN TREE SELECTION STRATEGIES 13.TREE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE – Hardwoods and Softwoods – Emphasis as desired 14.TREE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE – Hardwoods and Softwoods 15.EUCALYPT FIBRE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE 16.SOFTWOOD FIBRE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE

3 SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD KRAFT PULPS OF THE FUTURE A Seminar for Senior Management of Pulp and Paper Companies Seminar designed to meet the needs of the senior management team One hour is needed for presentation and discussion to provide management with a vision of future pulp and fibre quality requirements and emerging technologies Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements and can cover softwoods only or softwoods and hardwoods depending on specific company needs CONTENTS 1.World kraft pulp types and end-use suitabilities 2. Chip segregation versus pulp fractionation 3.Earlywood/latewood separation opportunities

4 MARKET KRAFT PULPS OF THE FUTURE A Seminar for Technical, Marketing and Purchasing Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of technical, marketing and purchasing personnel involved in selling or purchasing softwood and/or hardwood market kraft pulps A three hour seminar covering pulp types and their suitability for different paper grades to provide a basic understanding with time available to discuss specific company issues Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirement and covers both softwoods and hardwoods CONTENTS 1.Softwood and hardwood pulp qualities and end-use suitability Softwood fibre types and market pulp grades Radiata pine and benchmark market pulps Pulp uniformity Pulp refining and reinforcement properties Product suitability Eucalypt fibre types Hardwood market pulp types - eucalypt, acacia, birch, aspen and mixed hardwood Mechanical and optical properties by pulp type Product suitability 2.Softwood market kraft in the future World kraft pulp types and end-use suitabilities Chip segregation versus pulp fractionation Earlywood/latewood separation opportunities 3.Designer fibre for different paper and pulp grades Plantation pines and eucalyptus Kraft pulp quality determinants Wood/fibre property variation among trees Wood, fibre and kraft pulp property relationships Fibre dimensions versus product suitability

5 FIBRE INFLUENCES ON PROCESS AND PRODUCT: FOREST TO END-USE A Seminar for Kraft Mill Production and Technical Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of mill production and technical personnel involved in managing and running mill operations Seminar has been run successfully previously A one day seminar which covers pulp and fibre types, refining, and suitability for different paper grades to provide a basic understanding with time available to discuss specific company issues Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements and can cover both softwoods and hardwoods Seminar is divided into six modules any of which can be excluded to allow more emphasis on relevant issues CONTENTS 1.Softwood and hardwood, wood and fibre structure and chemistry Earlywood/latewood Cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin/extractives Fibre structure Hardwoods versus softwoods Chemical pulping process and yield Fibre dimensions Microfibril angle 2.Kraft process and pulp quality indicators Fibre strength Fibre dimensions Fibres/gram Important handsheet relationships Kraft pulp refining Kraft pulp degradation Undried and dried pulps – hornification

6 3.Softwood kraft pulp influences on paper quality Market kraft quality determinants Softwood market kraft types Radiata pine market kraft types Geographical influence on radiata pine fibre quality Variation within stem 4.Hardwood kraft pulp influences on paper quality Eucalypt fibre types Hardwood market pulp types - eucalypt, acacia, birch, aspen and mixed hardwood Mechanical and optical properties by pulp type Product suitability 5.Pulp refining Low consistency refining Effects on fibres Increased wetting and water retention Wall swelling and delamination, surface lamellae stripping and fibrillation, internal fibrillation, curl and kink, wall dislocations and microcompressions, fibre shortening Effects on pulps and handsheets Refining energy and intensity Specific edge load Softwoods and hardwoods Separate and co-refining High and medium consistency refining Fibre curl, kink and microcompression influences 6.Fibres for different paper and pulp grades Plantation pines and eucalypts Kraft pulp quality determinants Wood/fibre property variation among trees Wood, fibre and kraft pulp property relationships Fibre dimensions versus product suitability

7 PRODUCT-DRIVEN EUCALYPT-FIBRE SELECTION FOR PAPERMAKING A Seminar for Technical Personnel of Eucalypt forestry and/or pulp manufacturing companies Seminar designed to link the eucalypt fibre requirements of the papermaker with those of the forest grower (or the supplier of raw material to the mill) and the eucalypt pulp manufacturer A two-to-three hour seminar which will provide a knowledge of pulp and paper requirements and opportunities and issues relating to supplying the optimum fibre type Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements CONTENTS 1.Bleached eucalypt market kraft fibres and end-use suitabilities 2.Chemical and kraft fibre property variation among eucalypt trees and species Eucalyptus nitens, E. fastigata and E. regnans 3.Within-tree chemical and kraft-fibre property variation among eucalypt trees and species Eucalyptus fastigata and E. nitens 4.Kraft-fibre versus Wood-fibre (SilviScan) properties 5.Selection of Eucalyptus nitens trees for different paper and pulp grades 6.Eucalypt-fibre selection for papermaking Eucalyptus nitens, E. maidenii and E. globulus Product-driven fibre selection and benchmarking criteria for market kraft pulps Product-driven fibre selection and benchmarking criteria for laboratory kraft pulps

8 WOOD-FIBRE FOR FUTURE PRODUCTS FROM PULP A seminar for forward-looking, marketing and technical personnel of pulp manufacturing and forest growing companies A one-hour seminar designed to consider future wood-fibre market trends for existing paper products and new bioproducts from pulp, the time horizon being present to 50 years. Seminar encompasses issues from wood-fibre production (forest-growing) to the manufacture of existing paper products and the development of new bioproducts. CONTENTS 1.The properties of hardwood (eucalypt, Acacia sp. Birch, poplar etc.) and softwood (Northern, Radiata pine and Southern) papermaking fibres of today are first described. Also outlined are the different roles of these two fibre types in papermaking furnishes, together with their strengths and weaknesses for different identified products and how they might be enhanced or overcome in the short-term (10 – 20 years). When the crystal-ball horizon is extended into the year period, short rotation softwood and hardwood crops with greatly enhanced fibre property uniformities are envisaged, together with an ability to develop a wide range of new products from pulp. Selected fibre property combinations will become available from a wide range of modified genotypes, ensuring that new and sustainable bioproducts are able to be produced from wood-fibre pulps. 2.Compared to today, fibre property population distributions will be greatly narrowed, and fibre property relationships will be changed. Furthermore, some fibre characteristics will be very different to what we observe within the range of endogenous variation. A number of fibre property combinations are theoretically possible, as well as the range of bio-products that could be made with them. In order to achieve this, appropriate assay procedures need to be developed, preferably at the nano- and micro- levels, to take advantage of developments in plant biotechnologies.

9 KRAFT PULP REFINING A Seminar for Mill Technical Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of mill technical personnel at any operation using kraft pulps in papermaking A three hour seminar which covers pulp refining of softwood and hardwood pulps separately or co-refined and the effects on different paper grades with time available to discuss specific company issues CONTENTS 1.Refining and refining effects of fibres/pulps Low consistency refining Effects on fibres Increased wetting and water retention, wall swelling and delamination, surface lamellae stripping and fibrillation, internal fibrillation, curl and kink, wall dislocations and microcompressions, fibre shortening Effects on pulps and handsheets Refining energy and intensity Specific edge load Softwoods and hardwoods Separate and co-refining High and medium consistency refining Fibre curl, kink and microcompression influences 2.Refining and papermaking properties of softwood, eucalypt and mixed hardwood pulps and blends Fibre dimensions refining effects by pulp type Low consistency refining - kWh/t and specific edge load Softwood pulp-types: energy, tensile strength, reinforcement potential Softwood/eucalypt and softwood/mixed hardwood blends - 80:20 and 50:50: refining energy, tensile strength, reinforcement and optical properties Separate and co-refining Low consistency Escher Wyss and PFI mill refining

10 3.Future usage and processing of softwood and hardwood market kraft pulps Fibre types and qualities Pulp uniformity and the future Pulp refining processes and the future 4.Refining effects on softwood fibre wall structural organisations Fibre cross section measurement Dehydration effects Undried fibres Refiner and refining effects - PFI mill and Escher Wyss refiner Hardwood and softwood fibre effects Pulp process effects - Kraft, NSAQ, and Soda-AQ So What ! Fundamental considerations concerning fibre wall structure, composition, and refining effects and relationships

11 SOME SOFTWOOD KRAFT REINFORCEMENT ISSUES Seminar designed to meet the needs of technical and marketing personnel with Market Kraft Pulp Producers and technical and R&D personnel with Paper Producers A two hour seminar which covers the effects of fibre type and fibre treatment on reinforcement, introduces Fracture Energy Index as a measure of fibre reinforcement potential and discusses reinforcement issues for wood-free and wood-containing grades CONTENTS 1.Softwood market kraft pulp qualities Wood and fibre pulp quality determinants Fibre types and end-use suitability Refining and reinforcement requirements 2. Fracture Energy Index A softwood kraft fibre quality determinant !! A measure of reinforcement potential of the softwood fibre component in papermaking furnishes Influences of softwood fibre type Some refining, softwood proportion and furnish type influences 3. Some reinforcement issues in wood-free grades Softwood and hardwood pulp types and origins Important fibre properties Softwood proportions: 100, 50 and 20 % Number of softwood and hardwood fibres Separate refining: 3 Ws/m, 0.5 Ws/m Tear index versus tensile index 4. Some reinforcement issues in wood-containing grades TMP and kraft pulp types Kraft proportions, and refining energy/intensity Fines recirculation influences Furnish tensile, stretch, T.E.A. and Tear indices Mixture prediction models TMP fines influences Furnish reinforcement?

12 MECHANICAL PULP FIBRE, FINES AND WOOD QUALITY ISSUES Seminar designed to meet the needs of technical and R&D personnel with TMP Plants and Papermills using TMP A two hour seminar which covers the effects of softwood fibre type on TMP processing and fibre quality CONTENTS 1.Radiata pine (and other softwood) sawmill residues, toplogs and thinnings issues Corewood, slabwood and juvenile wood Geographic latitude and altitude influences Pulp quality determinants Fibre dimensions and microfibril angle Benchmarking within and among softwood types 2. TMP: corewood versus slabwood influences Whole-pulp web surface and internal organisations Fibre and fines qualities: response to and damage by refining Interrelationships among refining energy, pulp freeness, sheet properties, and fibre and fines qualities 3. TMP: influences of an extreme range of 5 radiata pine wood types Wood density and tracheid length Basis of comparison: refining energy, pulp freeness, and sheet properties Thinnings, toplogs and slabwood Whole-pulp, fibre and fines quality influences Microfibril angle and chip defibration influences 4. TMP: fibres and fines of 13 radiata pine wood types Benchmarking with northern spruce

13 5.Fibre characteristics of some SGW, TMP, RMP and refined-rejects pulps Whole-pulp Pulp fraction proportions and fibre lengths Fibre cross-section dimension Fibre surface and wall damage Sites of fibre separation Fines qualities Wet and dry web structural organisations and influences of fibre and fines qualities SGW versus PGW 6.Hardwood fibre types and suitability for mechanical pulping

14 FIBRE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS OF FIBRE-CEMENT COMPOSITES A Seminar for Producer and End-User Technical Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of technical and R&D personnel with Pulp Fibre Producers and more particularly End-User Companies A one hour seminar which covers fibre effects on fibre-cement composite quality with time available to discuss specific company issues CONTENTS 1.Fibre quality Dimensions and collapse, and pulp uniformity Earlywood and latewood fibres 2.Pulp refining Intensity Fibre wetting, wall destructuring, shape, fibrillation and shortening Fines 3.Pulp uniformity and fibre property distributions Length Coarseness Collapse 4.Where to Now? Fibre-type suitability The future Further fibre quality enhancement?

15 FIBRE INFLUENCES ON KRAFT LINERBOARD QUALITY A Seminar for Company Technical Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of company technical and R&D personnel A one hour seminar which covers fibre effects on linerboard quality with time available to discuss specific company issues CONTENTS 1.Grades and qualities 2.Web structure and end-use requirements Top-layer – surface properties and printability Bottom layer – bulk and stiffness Fibre types Hydrophilic Hygrostability 3.Quality variation among linerboards Short-span compressive strength MD/CD ratio – “square sheet” Fibre types 4.Fibre level influences Fibre orientation Fibre number Softwood: hardwood proportions and dimensions Softwood fibre free-span length Fibre buckling under compression 5.Fibre types Radiata pine versus Southern pine Eucalypt versus mixed hardwood 6.Chemical additives 7.Recycled fibre Wettability, drying and refining Replacement of hardwood kraft component? Optimal recycled furnish for kraft linerboard

16 FIBRE INFLUENCES ON TISSUE QUALITY A Seminar for Company Technical, Marketing and Production Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of company technical, R&D, marketing and production personnel of both pulp producers and tissue makers for in-depth understanding A one hour seminar which covers fibre effects on tissue quality with time available to discuss specific company issues CONTENTS 1.Creping issues Web adhesion to dryer surface Web cohesiveness Micro and macro creping 2.Tissue softness Process/fibre interactions Bulk and surface softness Pulp refining influences 3.Fibre influences Thick/thin walled fibres Softwood versus hardwood fibres Softwood fibre types Northern, Radiata pine and Southern Radiata pine fibre types: Ultra-low, Low, Medium and High Hardwood fibre-types: Eucalypt, Acacia, Birch/aspen/poplar, Mixed hardwood Eucalypt fibre categories: High and intermediate bulk and E. regnans

17 4.Softwood fibre furnish component for runnability Lowest possible percent of furnish Separate refining Minimum but sufficient length; maximum fibre number Fibre types: Northern versus Radiata pine Length, coarseness and number Collapse resistance, hemicelluloses, flexibility and microfibril angle? No free lunch 5.Hardwood fibre component for bulk and softness Highest possible percent of furnish Minimal or zero refining Minimum but sufficient length; high collapse resistance; maximum fibre number Eucalypt versus other hardwood fibre types Eucalypt fibre for tissue softness: Length, coarseness, number and collapse resistance New Zealand-grown versus market kraft eucalypt fibre types Selection of eucalypt-fibre-type for tissue bulk, formation and softness 6.Eucalypt : softwood furnish mixes 50 : 50, and 80 : 20 for both Northern and Radiata pin 7.Other pulp types Chemical Mechanical/chemimechanical

18 QUALITIES OF RECYCLED FIBRES A Seminar for Company Technical Personnel Seminar designed to meet the needs of company technical and R&D personnel A one-half hour seminar which discusses the fundamental qualities of recycled fibres with time available to discuss specific company issues CONTENTS 1.Wettability 2.Drying effects on fibre shape and dimensions 3.Multiple drying and rewetting influences on fibres Fibre collapse, shape and wall compaction Fibre wettability (WRV%) 4.Unrefined and refined fibres 5. Multiple drying, rewetting and refining influences 6.Other process effects 7.Fines 8.Virgin and recycled fibre influences on process and product quality A discussion opportunity

19 PRODUCT DRIVEN TREE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE Hardwoods and Softwoods – Emphasis as desired A Seminar for Senior Management of Forestry Companies Seminar designed to meet the needs of the senior management and technical personnel in Forestry Companies Only one hour is needed for presentation and discussion to provide management with a knowledge of pulp and paper requirements and opportunities and issues relating to supplying the optimum fibre type Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements CONTENTS 1.Softwood/hardwood fibre types and end-use suitabilities Kraft and mechanical (TMP) pulp quality determinants Wood and fibre property variation among trees Heritability Solidwood and kraft/TMP pulp requirements/conflicts Juvenile wood and wood type classification by wood/fibre properties Tree selection strategies

20 PRODUCT DRIVEN TREE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE Hardwoods and Softwoods A Seminar for Forest Management and Technical Personnel of Forestry Companies Seminar designed to meet the needs of the senior management and technical personnel in Forestry Companies A three hour seminar which will provide a knowledge of pulp and paper requirements and opportunities and issues relating to supplying the optimum fibre type Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements for both softwoods and hardwoods or focus on either one depending on specific company needs CONTENTS 1.Softwood/hardwood fibre types and end-use suitabilities Softwood fibre types – Canadian, Scandinavian, Radiata pine and Southern Radiata pine fibre types - High, Medium, Low and Ultralow Hardwood fibre types - eucalypt, acacia, birch, aspen/poplar and mixed hardwood Eucalypt fibre types End-use suitability 2.Tree selection for fibre quality “Genetic selection of trees with designer fibres for different paper and pulp grades” Plantation pines and eucalypts Wood/fibre property variation among trees Wood, fibre and kraft pulp property relationships Fibre dimensions versus product suitability Non-destructive screening of standing trees 3.Fibre quality issues of the future “Designer fibres for improved papers through exploiting genetic variation in wood microstructure” Plantation pines and eucalypts Pulp quality determinants Wood and pulp fibre dimensions, microfibril angle and chemistry Tree selection strategies

21 4.Wood quality issues of the future “Evaluating processing options for radiata pine using wood microstructure and chemistry” Solid versus reconstituted wood product requirement conflicts? Processing options, resource assessment requirements The situation present and future Wood microstructure and chemical descriptors Important compound wood properties Wood microstructure variation within stems Corewood, juvenile wood and weird wood Critical issues: wood chemistry, microfibril angle and compression wood Influence on end-use properties

22 EUCALYPT FIBRE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE A Seminar for Technical Personnel of Forestry and Integrated Pulp and Paper Companies Seminar designed to meet the needs of the technical personnel in Forestry Companies A two-to-three hour seminar which will provide a knowledge of pulp and paper requirements and opportunities and issues relating to supplying the optimum fibre type Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements CONTENTS 1.Hardwood fibre types and end-use suitabilities Hardwood fibre types - eucalypt, acacia, birch, aspen and mixed hardwood Eucalypt fibre types Mechanical and optical properties by pulp type Product suitability 2.Wood and kraft pulp property relationships of Eucalyptus nitens, E. globulus and E. maidenii, at ages 8 and 11 years Chip density and chemistry, and pulp yield interrelationships Eucalypt kraft pulp quality determinants Handsheet properties Fibre dimensions Tree-age and property interrelationships among E. globulus, E. nitens and E. maidenii Wood and fibre requirements for premium quality eucalypt market kraft pulps 3.Wood Density and Chemistry, and kraft fibre property variation within and among the trees of Eucalyptus nitens, E. fastigata and E. regnans 29 individual-trees per species Chip density, chemistry and kraft pulp yield Kraft fibre length, cross section dimensions and collapse Handsheet bulk Where to now?

23 4.Wood fibre (SilviScan), wood-chemical, kraft-fibre and handsheet property interrelationship among and within the trees of Eucalyptus nitens and E. fastigata 29 individual-trees per species Wood density and vessel-free density Wood-fibre perimeter, wall thickness, coarseness, microfibril angle, perimeter/wall thickness ratio Individual-tree property means Property patterns of change within trees by species Wood-fibre versus kraft-fibre properties within trees by species Five primary individual-tree property determinants: fibre perimeter, wall thickness, microfibril angle (MF)A, length, glucose content What about wood density and lignin content, and fibre coarseness? Kraft handsheet property prediction models MFA influences Where to now?

24 SOFTWOOD FIBRE SELECTION STRATEGIES OF THE FUTURE A Seminar for Technical Personnel of Forestry and Integrated Pulp and Paper Companies Seminar designed to meet the needs of the technical personnel in Forestry and Integrated Pulp and Paper Companies A two-to-three hour seminar which will provide a knowledge of pulp and paper requirements and opportunities and issues relating to supplying the optimum fibre type Seminar encompasses issues from forest to paper product requirements CONTENTS 1.Softwood fibre types and end-use suitabilities Softwood fibre types – Canadian, Scandinavian, Radiata pine and Southern Radiata pine fibre types - High, Medium, Low and Ultralow Pulp uniformity Pulp refining and reinforcement properties Product suitability 2.Wood-fibre (SilviScan), wood-chemical, kraft-fibre and handsheet property interrelationships among 50 individual radiata pine trees Radiata pine at individual-tree level Other softwoods, and eucalypts and other hardwoods Interrelationships among galactose, lignin, glucose, MFA and compression wood Compression wood - the big problem for individual-tree property prediction Relationships among compression wood indicators Interrelationships among kraft kappa number, fibre dimension and handsheet density Interrelationships among tracheid, and kraft and TMP fibre dimensions Five primary individual-tree property determinants: tracheid perimeter, wall thickness, MFA, fibre length, glucose content What about wood density, tracheid coarseness and lignin content? Kraft handsheet property prediction models Where to now?

25 3.Some dimensional relationships among wood tracheids, TMP fibres, and kraft fibre Interrelationships among individual-tree wood tracheid, and TMP and kraft fibre dimensions Uneven shrinkage of the fibres within individual-tree kraft pulps High kraft wall area and wall thickness variation compared to corresponding wood tracheid and TMP fibre populations Fibre and lumen perimeter decrease with kraft pulping latewood fibre populations contain some fibres which respond differently to others during kraft pulping Tracheid wall area and wall thickness versus kraft and TMP fibre wall area and wall thickness


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