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Universal Gravitation Newton Cavendish Examples Whiteboards

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Newton: Apple falls on his head? Newton knows four things: Distance apple is from the earth’s center Distance it falls in a second Distance the moon is from the earth’s center Distance it “falls” in a second 1643-1727 He concludes there is an inverse square relationship: F 1 / r 2

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Newton: His law of universal gravitation so far: F = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 1643-1727 r m1m1 m2m2 r = Center to center distance m 1 = One of the masses m 2 = The other mass G = Universal gravitation constant What to use for G?

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Cavendish Determines the value of G in 1798 F = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 Measures F, both masses, and r G = 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm 2 /kg 2 (units cancel)

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F = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 r = Center to center distance m 1 = One of the masses m 2 = The other mass G = 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Example 1 - Find the force of gravity between a.756 kg stapler, and a.341 kg marker that is 1.75 m away?

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F = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 r = Center to center distance m 1 = One of the masses m 2 = The other mass G = 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Example 2 - What is the force of gravity between a 1.0 kg mass, and the earth? (r = 6.38 x 10 6 m, m earth = 5.97 x 10 24 kg) (check use of scientific notation)

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Whiteboards: Gravity 11 | 2 | 3 | 4234 TOC

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What is the force of gravity between a 5.2 kg shot and a 250. kg wrecking ball whose centers are 2.45 m distant? 1.44 x 10 -8 N

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Another shot is 1.45 m from the center of a 250. kg wrecking ball and experiences a force of 1.55 x 10 -7 N, what is the mass of the shot? 19.5 kg

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What distance from the center of a 512 kg wrecking ball must a 4.5 kg bowling ball be to experience a force of 1.13 x 10 -9 N? 11.7 m

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The moon has a mass of 7.36 x 10 22 kg, and a radius of 1.74 x 10 6 m. What does a 34.2 kg mass weight on the surface? 55.5 N

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The moon has a mass of 7.36 x 10 22 kg, and a radius of 1.74 x 10 6 m. What mass weighs 25 N on its surface? 15 kg

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The moon has a mass of 7.36 x 10 22 kg, and a radius of 1.74 x 10 6 m. At what distance from the moon’s center would a 43 kg mass weigh 25 N? 2.9 x 10 6 m

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