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**3-5 Slopes of Lines Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz**

Holt McDougal Geometry Holt Geometry

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Warm Up Find the value of m. undefined

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**Objectives Find the slope of a line.**

Use slopes to identify parallel and perpendicular lines.

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Vocabulary rise run slope

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**The slope of a line in a coordinate plane**

is a number that describes the steepness of the line. Any two points on a line can be used to determine the slope.

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**Example 1A: Finding the Slope of a Line**

Use the slope formula to determine the slope of each line. AB Substitute (–2, 7) for (x1, y1) and (3, 7) for (x2, y2) in the slope formula and then simplify.

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**Example 1B: Finding the Slope of a Line**

Use the slope formula to determine the slope of each line. AC Substitute (–2, 7) for (x1, y1) and (4, 2) for (x2, y2) in the slope formula and then simplify.

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**Example 1C: Finding the Slope of a Line**

Use the slope formula to determine the slope of each line. AD Substitute (–2, 7) for (x1, y1) and (–2, 1) for (x2, y2) in the slope formula and then simplify. The slope is undefined.

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**A fraction with zero in the denominator is undefined because **

it is impossible to divide by zero. Remember!

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**Example 1D: Finding the Slope of a Line**

Use the slope formula to determine the slope of each line. CD Substitute (4, 2) for (x1, y1) and (–2, 1) for (x2, y2) in the slope formula and then simplify.

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Check It Out! Example 1 Use the slope formula to determine the slope of JK through J(3, 1) and K(2, –1). Substitute (3, 1) for (x1, y1) and (2, –1) for (x2, y2) in the slope formula and then simplify.

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**If a line has a slope of , then the slope of a perpendicular line is .**

The ratios and are called opposite reciprocals.

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**Four given points do not always determine two lines. **

Graph the lines to make sure the points are not collinear. Caution!

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**Example 3A: Determining Whether Lines Are Parallel, Perpendicular, or Neither**

Graph each pair of lines. Use their slopes to determine whether they are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. UV and XY for U(0, 2), V(–1, –1), X(3, 1), and Y(–3, 3) The products of the slopes is –1, so the lines are perpendicular.

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**Example 3B: Determining Whether Lines Are Parallel, Perpendicular, or Neither**

Graph each pair of lines. Use their slopes to determine whether they are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. GH and IJ for G(–3, –2), H(1, 2), I(–2, 4), and J(2, –4) The slopes are not the same, so the lines are not parallel. The product of the slopes is not –1, so the lines are not perpendicular.

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**Example 3C: Determining Whether Lines Are Parallel, Perpendicular, or Neither**

Graph each pair of lines. Use their slopes to determine whether they are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. CD and EF for C(–1, –3), D(1, 1), E(–1, 1), and F(0, 3) The lines have the same slope, so they are parallel.

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Check It Out! Example 3a Graph each pair of lines. Use slopes to determine whether the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. WX and YZ for W(3, 1), X(3, –2), Y(–2, 3), and Z(4, 3) Vertical and horizontal lines are perpendicular.

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Check It Out! Example 3b Graph each pair of lines. Use slopes to determine whether the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. KL and MN for K(–4, 4), L(–2, –3), M(3, 1), and N(–5, –1) The slopes are not the same, so the lines are not parallel. The product of the slopes is not –1, so the lines are not perpendicular.

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Check It Out! Example 3c Graph each pair of lines. Use slopes to determine whether the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. BC and DE for B(1, 1), C(3, 5), D(–2, –6), and E(3, 4) The lines have the same slope, so they are parallel.

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Lesson Quiz 1. Use the slope formula to determine the slope of the line that passes through M(3, 7) and N(–3, 1). m = 1 Graph each pair of lines. Use slopes to determine whether they are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. 2. AB and XY for A(–2, 5), B(–3, 1), X(0, –2), and Y(1, 2) 4, 4; parallel 3. MN and ST for M(0, –2), N(4, –4), S(4, 1), and T(1, –5)

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