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Analysis of a New Gravitational Lens FLS 1718+59 Yoon Chan Taak Feb 14 2013 Survey Science Group Workshop 2013 1

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What is Gravitational Lensing? Deflection of light by body of mass ◦ Deflection angle greater for GR (factor of 2) vs (r: source-lens distance) ◦ e.g. Solar eclipse of May 1919 Causes distortion of images 2

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Images of GL 3 Abell 1689 cluster

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Images of GL 4 Einstein Ring – SDSS J073728.45+321618.5 Einstein Cross – QSO 2237+030

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Images of GL 5

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Types of GL Strong GL ◦ Big distortions, e.g. rings, arcs, multiple img ◦ Lens is galaxy or cluster Weak GL ◦ Shear distortion ◦ Lens is galaxy or cluster, but further away from source Microlensing ◦ Brightness variations ◦ Lens has stellar masses (e.g. planets) 6

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Why GL? Requires only mass Allows detection of dark matter Acts as “cosmic telescope” Lets us see more distant objects Determines cosmological parameters ◦ Deflection depends on redshift-distance formula ◦ Time delay related to Hubble constant Constrains geometry of universe 7

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Gravitational Lensing Theory Point-mass lens Finite lens 8

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Point Mass (Schwarzschild) Lens Lens (Ray-trace) equation ◦ 11 ◦ 1 9 θ S : lens-source angular distance α : deflection angle of light ray θ 1,2 : lens-img angular distances b : lens-deflection pt angular dist. α 0 : Einstein rad. [(4GM/c 2 ) (D LS /D L D S )] 1/2 α D LS θSDSθSDS (D S /D L )b

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Finite Lens Ray-trace eqn is for 2-D plane ◦ Change scalars to vectors for 3-D Integrate deflection angle for all infinitesimal masses ◦ I Calculate numerical solution 10

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gravlens: Software for G-Lensing Developed by C. Keeton (Rutgers) Useful for various g-lens images ◦ Able to find best set of lens parameters for multiple images (lensmodel) Contains 20+ lens models ◦ Can be superposed, diverse potentials possible 11

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FLS 1718+59 G-lensing image in Spitzer First Look Survey Field z lens = 0.08 z source = 0.245 ◦ Closest source so far(?) RA = 17 h 18 m 17.6 s Dec = 59 d 31 m 46 s

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FLS 1718+59

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Procedures Simulated lensing images with several sets of input variables ◦ Mass scale of lens ◦ X coord. of source ◦ Ellipticity (angle) of source ◦ Ellipticity (angle) of lens* Assumed no external shear * Obtained from original HST image

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Softened Power Law Ellipsoid

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Results

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Discussion Many sets of variables may yield similar images A more careful approach is necessary for constraining errors requires analysis with more sets of variables M gal ~ 10 10.75 M ʘ, σ ~ 150km/s Possibly an edge-on spiral

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