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A 24.0 kg mass is attached to the bottom of a vertical spring, causing it to stretch 15.0 cm. a) What is the spring constant? b) What is the final potential energy stored in the spring?

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: A 65-75: B 55-65: C 45-55: D 0-45: F

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You must wear closed-toe shoes.

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OpenStax Chapter 16

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When an elastic object is deformed, it experiences a restoring force. ◦ Elastic means that it is capable of returning to its original shape/size. ◦ Includes springs, plastic rulers, rubber bands, guitar strings, etc. The restoring force is given by Hooke’s Law

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The force constant, k, is related to the rigidity (or stiffness) of a system. Larger k greater restoring force stiffer system Measured in N/m The slope of a Force vs. Displacement graph (if the graph is linear)

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What is the force constant for the suspension system of a car that settles 1.20 cm when an 80.0 kg person gets in?

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6.53x10 4 N/m

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Work must be done in any deformation. Assuming no energy is lost to heat, sound, etc., then all work is transferred to potential energy. Since the force increases linearly with displacement, we can easily calculate the potential energy.

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a) How much energy is stored in the spring of a tranquilizer gun that has a force constant of 50.0 N/m and is compressed m? b) If you neglect friction and the mass of the spring, at what speed will a 2.00 g projectile be ejected from the gun? a)0.563 J b)23.7 m/s

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Read Section 16.1 of OpenStax textbook (online): pages

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A force of 20.0 N is applied to the tip of a ruler, causing it to deflect 4.00 cm. What is the force constant of the ruler?

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You will be assigned to a group. Your group’s goal is to determine the relationship between the following: ◦ The mass at the end of the string ◦ The length of the string ◦ The period of an oscillation (the time it takes to complete one oscillation). ◦ The angle of oscillation Materials allowed: ◦ String (and scissors to cut the string) ◦ Masses ◦ Rulers/Metersticks/Protractor ◦ Stopwatch (cell phone) Be sure to record everything in your lab notebook!

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Group 1 Uriostegui Parra, KarlaPeek, AngelaSutton, Foster Group 2 Hy, Kevin Galac, Roger ReggeJezycki, Jocelyn Group 3 Moreno, MarkTo, FrankCdebaca, Paul Group 4 Gorman, Courtney Nguyen, ChristinaDolphin, Jeremy Group 5 Lee, JustinNguyen, PeterLenhoff, Shane Group 6 Kibret, ElroiBasinger, Shelby Nava Saucedo, Hector Group 7 Le, Tiffany Garcia-Ayala, DianaKirk, John Group 8 Randazzo, JosephWu, TongLenhoff, Erin Group 9 Lopez, IsabelNguyen, Phat

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Group member names Descriptive lab name Materials used Procedures followed Data obtained Calculations made Conclusions reached Summary

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A g mass is attached to a rubber band, causing it to stretch 5.00 cm. How much potential energy is stored in the rubber band?

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OpenStax section 16.2 AP Physics 1

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Periodic motion is motion that repeats itself at regular time intervals. Examples: ◦ Vibrating guitar string ◦ Pendulum ◦ Mass bobbing at the end of a spring

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The period, T, is the time to complete one oscillation. ◦ Measured in seconds The frequency, f, is the number of oscillations per unit time. ◦ Measured in Hertz

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A medical imaging device produces ultrasound by oscillating with a period of μs. What is the frequency of this oscillation? 2.50x10 6 Hz

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The frequency of middle C on a typical musical instrument is 264 Hz. What is the time for one complete oscillation? 3.79 ms

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Identify an event in your life (such as receiving a paycheck) that occurs regularly. Identify both the period and frequency of this event.

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You have the remainder of class to work on your lab report with your lab group.

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A stroboscope is set to flash every 8.00x10 -5 s. What is the frequency of the flashes?

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OpenStax section 16.3 AP Physics 1

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Simple harmonic motion is oscillatory motion for a system where the net force can be described by Hooke’s Law. ◦ Pendulums are sometimes considered simple harmonic motion – only for small angles. Equal/symmetric displacement on either side of the equilibrium position. The maximum displacement from equilibrium is called the amplitude.

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Period and frequency are independent of amplitude, so simple harmonic oscillators can be used as clocks. They are a good analogue for waves, including invisible ones (sound, electromagnetic)

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For simple harmonic oscillators: What do period and frequency not depend on?

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If the shock absorbers in a car go bad, then the car will oscillate at the least provocation, such as when going over bumps in the road and after stopping. Calculate the frequency and period of these oscillations for such a car if the car’s mass (including its load) is 900. kg and the force constant of the suspension system is 6.53x10 4 N/m f=1.36 Hz T=0.738 s

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Suppose you pluck a banjo string. You hear a single note that starts out loud and slowly quiets over time. Describe what happens to the period, frequency, and amplitude of the sound waves as the volume decreases.

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A diver on a diving board is undergoing simple harmonic motion. Her mass is 55.0 kg and the period of her motion is s. The next diver is a male whose period of simple harmonic motion is 1.05 s. What is his mass if the mass of the board is negligible?

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Read OpenStax Chapter 16 (through 16.3) OpenStax page 588 #1-7 OpenStax page 590 #1-21 odd

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If the spring constant of a simple harmonic oscillator is doubled, by what factor will the mass of the system need to change in order for the frequency of the motion to remain the same?

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One person from each group collect lab notebooks from all group members and turn them in.

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OpenStax section 16.4 AP Physics 1

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Small-diameter mass, called the pendulum bob String has negligible mass, but strong enough to not stretch appreciably Undergoes simple harmonic motion if θ<15°

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Does not depend on mass. Does not depend on amplitude (for θ<15°) Can be finely adjusted, and can make excellent clocks. Can also be used to solve for g.

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What is the acceleration due to gravity in a region where a simple pendulum having a length of cm has a period of s?

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What is the effect on the period of a pendulum if you double its length?

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What is the length of a pendulum that has a period of s? Let g=9.80 m/s 2.

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The pendulum on a cuckoo clock is 5.00 cm long. What is its frequency? Let g=9.80 m/s 2.

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Read OpenStax Chapter 16 (through 16.4) OpenStax page 588 #1-8 OpenStax page 590 #1-33 odd

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Punxsutawney Phil, seer of seers, prognosticator of prognosticators, has an extremely accurate pendulum clock in his secret lair. The period of this clock is exactly six weeks. a) What is the length of this pendulum clock? b) Is your answer realistic? Why or why not?

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New date and time Wednesday, February 25 Time TBD

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OpenStax Section 16.5 AP Physics 1

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Energy is conserved Maximum speed occurs at equilibrium position.

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Energy is conserved Maximum speed occurs at equilibrium position.

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Suppose that a car is 900. kg and has a suspension system that has a force constant of 65.3 kN/m. The car hits a bump and bounces with an amplitude of m. What is its maximum velocity (assuming no damping)? m/s

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Near the top of the Citigroup Center building in New York City, there is an object with mass of 4.00x10 5 kg on springs that have adjustable force constants. Its function is to dampen wind-driven oscillations of the building by oscillating at the same frequency as the building is being driven; the driving force is transferred to the object, which oscillates instead of the entire building. a) What effective force constant should the springs have to make the object oscillate with a period of 2.00 s? b) What energy is stored in the springs for a 2.00 m displacement from equilibrium?

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OpenStax section 16.6 AP Physics 1

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An object moving in uniform circular motion can be used as an analogue for simple harmonic motion.

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A ladybug sits 12.0 cm from the center of a Beatles album spinning at 33.3 rpm. What is the maximum velocity of its shadow on the wall behind the turntable, if illuminated parallel to the record by the parallel rays of the setting sun? m/s

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Read OpenStax Chapter 16 (through 16.6) OpenStax page 588 #1-9 OpenStax page 590 #1-39 odd

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a) If the spring stretches m while supporting an 8.00 kg child, what is its spring constant? b) What is the time for one complete bounce? c) What is the child’s maximum velocity if the amplitude of her bounce is m? The device pictured entertains infants while keeping them from wandering. The child bounces in a harness suspended from a door frame by a spring.

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OpenStax Section 16.7 AP Physics 1

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Friction is not always negligible. Damping is the slowing and stopping of oscillations, caused by a non-conservative force (such as friction). Damping is sometimes part of a design (such as a car’s shock absorbers). For small damping, the amplitude slowly decreases while period and frequency are nearly unchanged.

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Non-conservative work removes mechanical energy (usually to thermal energy).

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Large damping causes the period to increase and the frequency to decrease. Very large damping prevents oscillation – the system just returns to equilibrium. Critical damping is the amount of damping that returns a system to equilibrium as quickly as possible. Overdamped systems return to equilibrium slower than critical damping.

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Which is critical damping? Which is overdamping?

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Car shock absorbers Bathroom scale

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Suppose a kg object is connected to a spring as shown, but there is simple friction between the object and the surface, and the coefficient of kinetic friction is equal to The force constant of the spring is 50.0 N/m. Use g=9.80 m/s 2. a) What is the frictional force between the surfaces? b) What total distance does the object travel if it is released from rest m from equilibrium?

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A novelty clock has a kg mass object bouncing on a spring that has a force constant of 1.25 N/m. a) What is the maximum velocity of the object if the object bounces 3.00 cm above and below the equilibrium position? b) How many Joules of kinetic energy does the object have at its maximum velocity?

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OpenStax section 16.8 AP Physics 1

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What do you have to do to swing high on a swing?

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The natural frequency is the frequency at which it would oscillate if there were no driving and no damping force. If you drive a system at a frequency equal to its natural frequency, its amplitude will increase. This is called resonance. ◦ A system being driven at its natural frequency is said to resonate.

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The highest amplitude oscillations occur when: ◦ The system is driven at its natural frequency ◦ There is minimal damping

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A famous trick involves a performer singing a note toward a crystal glass until the glass shatters. Explain why the trick works in terms of resonance and natural frequency.

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A suspension bridge oscillates with an effective force constant of 1.00x10 8 N/m. a) How much energy is needed to make it oscillate with an amplitude of m? b) If soldiers march across the bridge with a cadence equal to the bridge’s natural frequency and impart 1.00x10 4 J of energy each second, how long does it take for the bridge’s oscillations to go from m to m amplitude?

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Read OpenStax Chapter 16 (through 16.8) OpenStax page 588 #1-13 OpenStax page 590 #1-45 odd

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How much energy must the shock absorbers of a 1200 kg car dissipate in order to damp a bounce that initially has a velocity of m/s at the equilibrium position? Assume the car returns to its original vertical position.

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Tentatively scheduled for April 18

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Wednesday, February 25 4 th period and lunch

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OpenStax section 16.9 AP Physics 1

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A wave is a disturbance that propagates, or moves from the place it was created. Waves carry energy, not matter. Similar to simple harmonic motion, waves have a period, frequency, and amplitude. Waves also have a wave velocity, the velocity at which the disturbance moves. Waves also have a wavelength, λ, the distance between identical parts of the wave.

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Calculate the wave velocity of an ocean wave if the distance between wave crests is 10.0 m and the time for a sea gull to bob up and down is 5.00 s m/s

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In transverse waves, also called shear waves, the direction of energy transfer and the direction of displacement are perpendicular. ◦ Examples: strings on musical instruments, light In longitudinal waves, also called compressional waves, the direction of energy transfer and the direction of displacement are parallel. ◦ Example: sound Some waves, such as ocean waves, are a combination of transverse and longitudinal.

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What is the wavelength of the waves you create in a swimming pool if you splash your hand at a rate of 2.00 Hz and the waves propagate at m/s?

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OpenStax section AP Physics 1

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Most real-world waves are combinations of simple waves. When two or more waves arrive at the same point, their disturbances are added together. This is called superposition. In constructive interference, crest meets crest, and trough meets trough, and the resultant is a wave with a larger amplitude. In destructive interference, crest meets trough, and resulting amplitude is smaller than either original amplitude. ◦ Amplitude is zero for pure destructive interference.

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wave-on-a-string_en.jar wave-on-a-string_en.jar

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Radio waves transmitted through space at 3.00x10 8 m/s by the Voyager spacecraft have a wavelength of m. What is their frequency?

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Sometimes waves superimpose in a way that causes an apparent lack of sideways motion. These waves are called standing waves. Standing waves have points that do not move, called nodes. The points that move the most are called antinodes.

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Green dots are nodes

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The fundamental frequency is the lowest possible frequency for a standing wave. Overtones or harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency.

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The superposition of two waves of similar frequency has a frequency that is the average of the two. This wave fluctuates in amplitude, or beats, in the beat frequency.

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The middle-C hammer of a piano hits two strings, producing beats of 1.50 Hz. One of the strings is tuned to Hz. What frequencies could the other string have?

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Twin jet engines on an airplane are producing an average sound frequency of Hz with a beat frequency of Hz. What are their individual frequencies?

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OpenStax section AP Physics 1

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Wave energy is related to wave amplitude The intensity, I, of a wave is the power, P, carried through area A.

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Valid for any flow of energy. Has units of W/m 2. Other intensity units include decibels. ◦ 90 decibel = W/m 2

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The average intensity of sunlight on Earth’s surface is about 700. W/m 2. a) Calculate the amount of energy that falls on a solar collector having an area of m 2 in 4.00 hours. b) What intensity would such sunlight have if concentrated by a magnifying glass onto an area 200. times smaller than its own?

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If two identical waves, each having an intensity of 1.00 W/m 2, interfere perfectly constructively, what is the intensity of the resulting wave?

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Read OpenStax Chapter 16 OpenStax page 588 #1-18 OpenStax page 590 #1-71 odd

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With your partner, write 3 multiple choice and/or multiple select questions. Indicate the correct answer(s). For computational questions, show work leading to the correct answer(s).

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