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The Age of Exploration a.k.a The age of Discovery.

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1 The Age of Exploration a.k.a The age of Discovery

2 SSWH10. The student will analyze the impact of the age of discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia. a)Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain. b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact. c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe.

3 STOP, THINK, REVIEW What is the definition of “Push Factors” and “Pull Factors”? Push factors are those that make you leave an area Pull factors are those things that draw you into a new area

4 STOP, THINK, REVIEW What are some push and pull factors causing individuals to migrate from one place to another?

5 Almost all of the Push and Pull factors during this time can be summed up into an easy term called… SSWH 10 (a) a)Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors

6 4 th period Don’t forget: You can copy- paste this slide into other presentations, and move or resize the poll.

7 7 th period Don’t forget: You can copy- paste this slide into other presentations, and move or resize the poll.

8 As members of a universalizing religion, Europeans had always seen spreading Christianity as a good thing Especially after the Reformation, competition will spring up Colonization will become a race to convert native peoples to a particular brand of Christianity Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active SSWH 10 (a) a)Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors

9 Gold was a hot item that explorers were looking for, but remember that it is really wealth, not just literal gold that explorers were after. Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the rising banking system Europeans also desired spices (Da Gama’s voyage to India made him a 3000% profit!) Other natural resources would come to be sold for profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.) This competition will be enhanced by the idea of mercantilism that emerges, the idea that there is only so much wealth in the world, and that to make your kingdom strong you must have more gold and wealth than the other kingdoms SSWH 10 (a) a)Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors

10 Just like the second G, Gold, Glory was a relatively new idea in Europe Came out of the Renaissance ideal of Humanism, and the focus on individual achievement With the rise of the printing press, the idea of gaining fame for one’s actions was more possible Also, individual kings wanted glory for their kingdoms, competition spreads SSWH 10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors

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12 So now we know what the main reason, motivations…or roles the explores were working toward. (3 G’s).

13 SSWH 10 (c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe. PRINCE HENRY “The Navigator” The first to encourage new ship explorations was Prince Henry of Portugal, known as “Prince Henry the Navigator” Started an institute for seafaring and exploring Started an institute for seafaring and exploring Combined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovations Combined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovations By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa

14 SSWH 10 (c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe. Improvement #1- Improved Map making  Using reports of explorers and information from Arab geographers, European cartographers were able to create accurate land and sea maps.  They also created maps that showed exact location.  Better instruments were also developed for navigation.

15 SSWH 10 (c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe.

16 Improvement #2- Improved Ship building The caravel was a new, faster, more maneuverable ship Older ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction) Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers)

17 SSWH 10 (c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe. Improvement #3- Improved navigation equipment Magnetic Compass- Magnetic Compass- Compass that pointed toward the poles…so you could know your directions when far from home…and at night. Astrolabe Astrolabe - measured the position of the starts, sun, and their position in the sky. (helped to determine latitude and if you were going in a straight line) Later on Sextant - Sextant - invented in the 1600’s to measures two points in the sky (usually a star and the horizon)

18 SSWH 10 (c) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe. Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe.

19 After the Vikings, nearly 500 years passed before Europeans returned to the Americas. During this time, most Europeans did not travel to unknown places. People believed it was too dangerous to go too far out into the ocean. Sailors were afraid to travel out of sight of the coast line. They did not have the tools to help them find their way. Once out of sight of land, they were unable to find their way back to port. Most people of the time had very unusual ideas about the unknown ocean. They thought, if ships went too far out into the ocean, they risked horrible sea monsters swallowing up their ships. Most people did not understand the shape of the Earth. They thought the sun was so hot at the horizon that it made the sea boil. Most knew it was round…but that could be sphere, bowl, or circle shape…so understanding shape didn’t really help, but few thought it was flat. It was a long time before Europeans had the technology that made long term sea travel possible. Three factors kept Europeans from exploring the oceans. First, square-sailed ships were used by European sailors. These ships were slow and could sail only with the wind. Square-sailed ships were not able to sail into the wind. Sailors knew this could prevent them from returning home, if they had to sail into the wind. With that worry sailing a long way from home wasn’t something they wanted. Second, there were not many maps or good navigation equipment. Maps were different from one another. No one knew which maps were correct. Ships' captains used a Jackstaff to determine their location. This method was not very accurate. Captains had to guess how far they had traveled. With the invention of the magnetic compass, astrolabe, and eventually sextant they now could make these long trips across vast oceans. And third, until the 1400s, Europe did not have strong central governments. Europe was divided into small kingdoms and villages that were ruled by a noble. The nobles were too busy fighting each other to care about exploration or searching the unknown world.

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22 SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

23 Full Name – Christopher Columbus Lived: (c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) Major accomplishment/known for: was the first explorer to cross the Atlantic Ocean and find new land. He though he had found a new route to India but landed in Modern Day Cuba and the Caribbean Islands. Sailed for - Spain SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

24 Full Name – Zhena He Lived: (1371–1435) Major accomplishment/known for: was the first explorer from Asia to explore many areas in the Pacific into India in an age when Europe was in the mist of the Dark Ages Sailed for – China (Ming Dynasty) SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

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26 Full Name – Vasco Da Gama Lived: (c or 1469 – 24 December 1524) Major accomplishment/known for: was the first explorer to navigate around the tip of Africa and find a way to India ( ) Sailed for – Portugal SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

27 Full Name – Ferdinand Magellan Lived: (c – April 27, 1521) Major accomplishment/known for: was the first explorer to circumnavigate the world. Although he would die in the Philippines his crew would finish the voyage. Of the 237 men that started the trip only 18 would return to Portugal. Sailed for – Portugal SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

28 Full Name - Hernando de Soto Lived: (c.1496/1497–1542) Major accomplishment/known for: was the first explorer to cross deep into the interior of the modern day United States. First European to discover and cross the Mississippi River. Sailed for- Spain

29 Full Name – Samuel de Champlain Lived: (c – December 25, 1635) Major accomplishment/known for: Explored modern day Canada and was the founder of the city of Quebec. Sailed for – France SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

30 Full Name – James Cook Lived: (c. 7 November 1728 – 14 February 1779) Major accomplishment/known for: One of the foremost explorers of Asia. Although most of the area was known his detailed island mapping and contributions to science are his lasting legacies. Sailed for – England SSWH10 (a) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.

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33 Contact between any two peoples geographically separated from one another results in an ‘exchange’ of physical elements Because Columbus was the first to cross and make this exchange it was given the obvious name …’Colombian Exchange’ but that doesn’t mean only what Columbus exchanged but what all explorers traveling to the America exchanged. SSWH10 (b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

34 There are 3 main things that get moved in this ‘exchange’; Plants, Animals, and Microbes Sometimes these exchange can be positive or negative. Explain how? SSWH10 (b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

35 The most damaging of these In the exchange that started along the coast and was made widespread by Columbus, disease was the most negative for Indian peoples. Fatality rate over a period of two to three generations was 95% for many tribal groups In some cases, as in the Mohegans case, the fatality rate could be 100% SSWH10 (b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

36 Not all pathogens traveled from Europe to the Americas Syphilis, polio, hepatitis and encephalitis were new world diseases African slaves were less vulnerable to European diseases than were Indians Europeans succumbed to Malaria easily SSWH10 (b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

37 European disease was particularly virulent Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, chicken pox, bubonic plague, scarlet fever and influenza were the most common microbial diseases exchanged Nearly all of the European diseases were communicable by air and touch. The pathway of these diseases was invisible to both Indians and Europeans SSWH10 (b) Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

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41 Analyze and explain the impact of the age of discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia.


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