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University of Copenhagen Issues in Ancient Celtic Writing Celtic Spring · 25 May 2012 Prof. Dr. David Stifter Dept. of Old and Middle Irish School of Celtic.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Copenhagen Issues in Ancient Celtic Writing Celtic Spring · 25 May 2012 Prof. Dr. David Stifter Dept. of Old and Middle Irish School of Celtic."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Copenhagen Issues in Ancient Celtic Writing Celtic Spring · 25 May 2012 Prof. Dr. David Stifter Dept. of Old and Middle Irish School of Celtic Studies NUI Maynooth 1

2 I. New Directions in Celtiberian New Gaulish Inscriptions2

3 Ancient Celtic: Celtiberian ca. 150 B.C. – 0 in central Spain (Ebro valley, Meseta) in semisyllabic Iberian script ca. 100, occasionally long texts

4 Stops (occlusives) can only be written in combination with vowels. In most cases, there is no distinction in writing between voiceless and voiced stops, even though the language made this distinction, e.g.: v = t/d + u = tu or du C = k/g + o = ko or go or f = b + u = bu Celtiberian Script a = a e = e i = i o = o u = u l = l r = r m = m n = n s = s z = z All other signs stand for single sounds: v = du and ö = tu C = ko and G = go f = b + u = bu

5 Celtiberian Carlos Jordán Coléra, ‘¿Sistema dual de escritura en celtibérico?’, in: Acta Palaeohispanica IX. Actas del IX Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas paleohispánicas. Barce­lona, 20–24 de octubre de Ed. F. Beltrán Lloris, C. Jordán Cólera y J. Velaza Frías [= Palaeo­hispanica 5], Zaragoza: Institución “Fernando el Católico” –

6 I. Lepontic Palaeography and Philology New Gaulish Inscriptions6

7 Lexicon Leponticum ca. 6 th -1 st c. B.C. for Lepontic and Cisalpine Gaulish North-Italian Lake District and Po Valley ca. 400 short texts (only few with more than two words) Lepontic Script

8 The Lepontic Script 8 taken over from North Etruscan shared with Venetic and Raetic omission of heta, qoppa, phi alphabetic sequence (Ven. Es 23): A E V Z Θ I K L M N P Ś R S T U X O CO·53, ·54: aev

9 Lexicon Leponticum (LexLep) 9 Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung – Austrian Science Fund Celtic Research Trust (Isle of Man)

10 Lexicon Leponticum (LexLep) 10 LexLep: excerpt from CO·48 Prestino

11 LexLep: iota 11

12 LexLep: alpha 12

13 Graphic Isolates: qoppa NO·22 San Bernardino di Briona, ca. 500 B.C. reading: quormsklp or quormskla 13 Francesco Rubat Borel, "Annexe 2. Nuovi dati per la storia delle lingue celtiche della Cisalpina", in: Daniele Vitali, Celtes et Gaulois. L'Archéologie face à l'Histoire, 2. La Préhistoire des Celtes. Actes de la table ronde de Bologne-Monterenzio, mai Glux-en-Glenne [= Bibracte 12/2], Bibracte: Centre archéologique européen 2006,

14 Graphic Isolates: phi and gamma BG·20 San Capriate San Gervasio, late 5 th c. B.C. reading: ]kiφisi or ]kicrisi 14 Alessandro Morandi, Celti d'Italia. A cura di Paola Piana Agostinetti. Tomo II: Epigrafia e lingua dei Celti d'Italia [= Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 12.2], Roma: Spazio Tre 2004.

15 digamma (wau) 15 v: BG·28.2:va CO·11: ]tiriṣ???v?[ CO·14:mei / va CO·24:] ṃa[ CO·31:vạ [ CO·48:uvamokozis […] < *upm̥h 2 o- uvltiauiopos CO·50:ev?[ = alphabetic CO·53:aẹv [ = alphabetic CO·54:]ạev [ = alphabetic CO·62:zv ośoris = alphabetic CO·81:]pa[ MI·12:vat NO·1:§ χosioiso v TI·19:iiuioitove TI·32:]??ṇoṿị : p̣la[ VA·4.1:amkouvi???ri VA·4.2:viχu = *u̯ikū? (Etr.) BG·28.2 Ghisalba VA·4 Sesto Calende

16 Voice Opposition Venetic inherited no letters for voiced sounds from Etruscan, but utilised ‘empty’ letters to make a distinction in voice: pi for /p/, phi for /b/ kappa for /k/, chi for /g/ tau/theta for /t/, zeta for /d/ What about Lepontic? No phi, therefore no graphic distinction of voicedness in labials. 16

17 Voice Opposition χ for /g/: NM·6.1:seχeθu = /sege°/ < *seg̑ h - (but CO·57-59 sekezos) NO·1:§ χosioiso v = /gotsioiso/ < *g̑ h osti- (but CO·48 -kozis) PV·4:eripoχios = /-bogi̯os/ < *b h eg- (but NO·21.1 anokopokios, setupokios) TV·1: pompeteχuaios = /-teng u̯ ai̯os/ < *tn̥g̑ h u̯eh 2 - (Oderzo 7 = Venetic writing!) TI·13:pirạṇịχeś= /-nigents/ ‘washing’? < *nei̯g u̯ -? (phps. -uiχeś = /-u̯ikents/ ‘fighting’?) χ for /k/: VA·4.2: viχu = /u̯ikū/ < *u̯ei̯k̑- (= Etruscan writing?) χ for /ɣ/: VC·1.2:arkatoko{k}materekos = /argantokomaterekos/ < *h 2 r̥g̑n̥to- but teuoχtonion = /dēu̯oɣdoni̯on/ < *g̑ h d h om- 17

18 Voice Opposition: theta? θ: CO·48: uvamokozis : plialeθu : uvltiauiopos : ariuonepos : siteś : tetu (ca. 500 B.C.) NM·6.1: seχeθu (1 st half 4 th c. B.C.) VA·3:]iunθanaχa (end 7 th c. B.C.) (Etr.) BS·3.2: θomezecuai / obauzana θina (Augustan period, Voltino!) 18

19 Voice Opposition: theta? in Venetic, theta and tau stand for /t/, zeta for /d/: θ: 1. CO·48: uvamokozis : plialeθu : uvltiauiopos : ariuonepos : siteś : tetu Etymology: siteś = *sēdn̥s ‘seats’ tetu = *dedoh 3 e ‘has given’ or *d h ed h oh 1 e ‘has put’ uvltiauiopos = ? plialeθu = *-edōn or *-et-ōn? 19

20 Voice Opposition: theta and zeta? θ: NM·6.1: seχeθu Etymology: seχeθu < *seg̑ h -edōn or *-et-ōn? z for /d/?: CO·57-59: sekezos Etymology: sekezos < *seg̑ h -edos or *-et-i̯os? or *-ed-i̯os? 20

21 san 21 David Stifter, "Lepontische Studien: Lexicon Leponticum und die Funktion von san im Lepontischen", in: Karin Stüber, Thomas Zehnder, Dieter Bachmann (Eds.), Akten des 5. Deutschsprachigen Keltologensymposiums. Zürich, 7.–10. September 2009 [= Keltische Forschungen. Allgemeine Reihe 1], Wien: Praesens Verlag 2010, Normal form of san in Etruscan and Venetic: = Ś 2 oldest form in Lepontic area ‘butterfly character’ = normal form attested only in MN·10.2 aśeś (lost!)

22 san 6 CO·48: siteś BG·5: aś VB·2: amaśilu VR·15 kośio VA·16: akeśi 22

23 san 4 MI·5: ś →t MI·1: peśu → petu VB·3.1: naśom → natom or naxom 23

24 san 3 CO·38: ś →m NO·26: ]auśi → ]aumi? VC·1.2: atoś → atom or san 1 ? VB·3.1: natoś (Tibiletti Bruno) → natom or naxom 24

25 san 2 25 JU·1: priś (Montmorot/Jura) TI·5: ariśai or arimai TI·7: aśui or amui (from *am- ‘to love’ or *ambi- ‘around’?) TI·9: reśu or remu (cp. Remi < *prei̯mo-)

26 san 2 26 VB·28 Stresa: namu esopnio namu = short form of Namantobogios ‘enemy breaker’ uel sim.

27 The Meaning of san Venetic: zeta /dz/ → /d/ Lepontic: zeta → /st/ or /ts/ (CO·48 Prestino uvamokozis < *-g̑ h osti-) san → /ts/ (CO·48 siteś = /-ts/? < *-ns; TI·13 piran/uiχeś = /-ts/? < *-ns; TI·25 anteśilu < *ande-ted-ti-?; cp. Ven. Es 76 nom. ve.s.ke.ś. < -et-s, beside *Es 121 dat. ve.s.kete.i.) proportion:zeta = /ts/ + /d/ san = /ts/ + XX = /d/ MI·10.1:ṃeśiọlano = Mediolanum MI·10.6:śuro = Durus? TI·41 & VB·21: aśkoneti(o) = Adgonnetius VB·27:aśouni = air. Adomnán? NO·18:aśmina = Adminius 27 = dagr-rune

28 The Final Phase: Latin Influence 28 early phaselate phase omikron (CO·6; TI·41) sigma (CO·6; NO·21.1) mu (TI·30; VR·1) nu (TI·30; BI·4)

29 The Final Phase: Latin Influence 29 VB·3.1 Ornavasso: naśom (san 4 ) = /naksi̯om/ ‘Naxian’? or:natom (tau) ‘of the sons’ or:nax(i)om (ix!) ‘Naxian’?

30 Enigmatic Scripts 30 BS·3 bilingual of Voltino:GR·3 Schnabelkanne (beak-spouted jug) from Castaneda: Einfluss der camunischen Schrift? St. Schumacher, ‘Val Camonica’, in: RGA 35, 335

31 Acknowledgements my colleagues in the Lexicon Leponticum-project: Martin Braun Chiara Dezi Michela Vignoli 31

32 Thank you very much for your attention Prof. Dr. David Stifter Dept. of Old and Middle Irish School of Celtic National University of Ireland Maynooth 32


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