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11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool.

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1 11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool.

2  Genetic variation leads to phenotypic variation.  Phenotypic variation is necessary for natural selection.  Genetic variation stored in gene pool.  made up of all alleles in a population  Offspring = new allele combinations

3  Allele frequencies measure genetic variation. –how common allele is in population –can be calculated for each allele in gene pool 1.Calculate the allele frequency for G(Green frogs) in the population 2.Calculate the allele frequency for g (brown frogs) in the population

4  Mutation is a random change in the DNA of a gene. Recombination forms new combinations of alleles. – can form new allele –How can mutations be passed on to offspring? – usually occurs during meiosis, What is the process called? – parents’ alleles arranged in new ways in gametes

5  Hybridization is the crossing of two different species.  occurs when individuals can’t find mate of own species  Much more successful/common in plants  topic of current scientific research

6  Why aren’t mutations in a skin or kidney cell sources of genetic variation?  If you have 10 individuals, 5 homozygous recessive and 5 heterozygous, what is the allele frequency for each allele?

7  A normal distribution graphs as a bell-shaped curve. Why is this curve called “normal”? Traits not undergoing natural selection have a normal distribution. Why? – highest frequency near mean value – frequencies decrease toward each extreme value

8  Microevolution is evolution within a population.  observable change in the allele frequencies  can result from natural selection  How does natural selection cause a change in allele frequencies?

9  Natural selection can take one of three paths. –Directional selection favors phenotypes at one extreme. –Bacteria, Greyhounds

10 –Stabilizing selection favors the intermediate phenotype. –Gall flies, Siberian Huskies –What happens to the allele frequency in this distribution?  Natural selection can take one of three paths.

11 –Disruptive selection favors both extreme phenotypes. –What happens if the middle cuts off completely?

12  Think of an example for each of the types of distributions for natural selection

13  Use a deck of cards to represent a population of island birds. The four suits represent different alleles for tail shape.  What would be the allele frequencies in the original population?  What are the allele frequencies of each suit when only 40 cards are chosen?  Suppose a few birds are blown by a storm to a new island. If we reshuffle the deck and only choose 10 alleles (how many birds does that represent?) what are the new allele frequencies?

14  Gene flow occurs when individuals join new populations and reproduce.  Gene flow keeps neighboring populations similar.  Low gene flow increases the chance that two populations will evolve into different species.  What is a species?  Why would low gene flow create new species? bald eagle migration

15  Genetic drift causes a loss of genetic diversity.  It is most common in small populations. Why?  A population bottleneck can lead to genetic drift.  It occurs when an event drastically reduces population size.  Example?  The bottleneck effect is genetic drift that occurs after a bottleneck event.

16  The founding of a small population can lead to genetic drift. –It occurs when a few individuals start a new population. –Can you think of an example of when this might occur? –The founder effect is genetic drift that occurs after start of new population.

17  Genetic drift has negative effects on a population. –less likely to have some individuals that can adapt –Why does that occur more in small population? –Penny Activity: Flip the penny 3 times, record how many head and how many tails you flipped. Flip the penny 17 more times, record how many heads and tails you flipped. Which results were closer to the 1:1 ratio you expect to get? –harmful alleles can become more common due to chance

18  Sexual selection occurs due to higher cost of reproduction for females.  males produce many sperm continuously  females are more limited in potential offspring each cycle  Result: Females are picky!

19  There are two types of sexual selection.  intrasexual selection: competition among males – Example: lions  intersexual selection: males display certain traits to females – Example: birds These birds have huge red air sacs which make them easier for predators to spot. Why would they have evolved these, then? Male Irish elks, now extinct, had 12-foot antlers. Describe how sexual selection could have caused such an exaggerated trait to evolve.

20  Populations become isolated when there is no gene flow.  Isolated populations adapt to their own environments.  Genetic differences can add up over generations. Two small, isolated populations of dolphins in Tin Can Bay and the Great Sandy Strait are at risk of extinction, and are the focus of a study by Southern Cross University researcher Daniele Cagnazzi. Mr Cagnazzi has been studying dolphins along the Queensland coast for the last three years. ~ABC News

21  Reproductive isolation can occur between isolated populations.  members of different populations cannot mate successfully Prezygotic: temporal isolation, behavioral isolation Postzygotic: hybrid sterility  final step to becoming separate species  Speciation is the rise of two or more species from one existing species.

22  Behavioral barriers can cause isolation.  called behavioral isolation  includes differences in courtship or mating behaviors

23  Geographic barriers can cause isolation.  called geographic isolation  physical barriers divide population  Temporal barriers can cause isolation.  called temporal isolation  timing of reproductive periods prevents mating

24  Natural selection can have direction.  The effects of natural selection add up over time.

25 What examples can you think of of convergent evolution?

26  Divergent evolution describes evolution toward different traits in closely related species. Other examples of divergent evolution? ancestor kit foxred fox

27  Two or more species can evolve together through coevolution.  evolutionary paths become connected  species evolve in response to changes in each other

28  Coevolution can occur in beneficial relationships.

29  Coevolution can occur in competitive relationships, sometimes called evolutionary.

30  Extinction is the elimination of a species from Earth.  Background extinctions occur continuously at a very low rate.  Same rate as speciation  Few species in small area  caused by local changes in environment

31  Mass extinctions are rare but much more intense.  destroy many species at global level  catastrophic events  5 in last 600 million years

32  A pattern of punctuated equilibrium exists in the fossil record.  theory proposed by Eldredge and Gould in 1972  Episodes of speciation occur suddenly followed by periods of little change  revised Darwin’s idea

33  adaptation  population  vestigial structure  homologous structure  analogous structure  gradualism  catastrophism  uniformitarianism  natural selection  artificial selection

34  gene pool  allele frequency  genetic drift  founder effect  bottleneck effect  coevolution  divergent evolution  convergent evolution

35  Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras  half-life  5 types of fossils

36  Charles Darwins’ observations on Galapagos Islands  Scientists and their contributions to evolution: Lamarck, E.Darwin, Linnaeus  4 principles of natural selection and their application (adaptation, variation, overproduction, descent with modification  Reasons for genetic variation (mutations, recombination, etc.)  3 types of selection (directional, disruptive, stabilizing) and application  Isolations: reproductive, behavioral, temporal, geographic  Labs for this Unit: Beak Lab, Lethal Alleles Lab (Tigers born without fur, two colors of M&M’s)– know the basic procedure and what principles of evolution the lab demonstrated, if you weren’t here for a lab, check with someone else to get the overall idea of what we did

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