Presentation on theme: "11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool."— Presentation transcript:
111.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool.
2Genetic variation in a population increases the chance that some individuals will survive. Genetic variation leads to phenotypic variation.Phenotypic variation is necessary for natural selection.Genetic variation stored in gene pool.made up of all alleles in a populationOffspring = new allele combinations
3Allele frequencies measure genetic variation. how common allele is in populationcan be calculated for each allele in gene poolCalculate the allele frequency for G(Green frogs) in the populationCalculate the allele frequency for g (brown frogs) in the population
4Genetic variation comes from several sources. Can you think of some? Mutation is a random change in the DNA of a gene.can form new alleleHow can mutations be passed on to offspring?Recombination forms new combinations of alleles.usually occurs during meiosis, What is the process called?parents’ alleles arranged in new ways in gametes
5Genetic variation comes from several sources. Hybridization is the crossing of two different species.occurs when individuals can’t find mate of own speciesMuch more successful/common in plantstopic of current scientific research
6SummaryWhy aren’t mutations in a skin or kidney cell sources of genetic variation?If you have 10 individuals, 5 homozygous recessive and 5 heterozygous, what is the allele frequency for each allele?
711.2 Natural selection acts on distributions of traits. A normal distribution graphs as a bell-shaped curve.highest frequency near mean valuefrequencies decrease toward each extreme valueWhy is this curve called “normal”?Traits not undergoing natural selection have a normal distribution. Why?
8Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways. Microevolution is evolution within a population.observable change in the allele frequenciescan result from natural selectionHow does natural selection cause a change in allele frequencies?
9Natural selection can take one of three paths. Directional selection favors phenotypes at one extreme.Bacteria, Greyhounds
10Natural selection can take one of three paths. Stabilizing selection favors the intermediate phenotype.Gall flies, Siberian HuskiesWhat happens to the allele frequency in this distribution?
11Natural selection can take one of three paths. Disruptive selection favors both extreme phenotypes.What happens if the middle cuts off completely?
12Work with your neighbor Think of an example for each of the types of distributions for natural selection
13Genetic Drift Quick Lab Use a deck of cards to represent a population of island birds. The four suits represent different alleles for tail shape.What would be the allele frequencies in the original population?What are the allele frequencies of each suit when only 40 cards are chosen?Suppose a few birds are blown by a storm to a new island. If we reshuffle the deck and only choose 10 alleles (how many birds does that represent?) what are the new allele frequencies?
1411.3 Gene flow is the movement of alleles between populations. Gene flow occurs when individuals join new populations and reproduce.Gene flow keeps neighboring populations similar.Low gene flow increases the chance that two populations will evolve into different species.What is a species?Why would low gene flow create new species?bald eagle migration
15Genetic drift is a change in allele frequencies due to chance. Genetic drift causes a loss of genetic diversity.It is most common in small populations. Why?A population bottleneck can lead to genetic drift.It occurs when an event drastically reduces population size.Example?The bottleneck effect is genetic drift that occurs after a bottleneck event.
16It occurs when a few individuals start a new population. The founding of a small population can lead to genetic drift.It occurs when a few individuals start a new population.Can you think of an example of when this might occur?The founder effect is genetic drift that occurs after start of new population.
17Genetic drift has negative effects on a population. less likely to have some individuals that can adaptWhy does that occur more in small population?Penny Activity:Flip the penny 3 times, record how many head and how many tails you flipped.Flip the penny 17 more times, record how many heads and tails you flipped.Which results were closer to the 1:1 ratio you expect to get?harmful alleles can become more common due to chance
18Sexual selection occurs when certain traits increase mating success. Sexual selection occurs due to higher cost of reproduction for females.males produce many sperm continuouslyfemales are more limited in potential offspring each cycleResult: Females are picky!
19There are two types of sexual selection. intrasexual selection: competition among malesExample: lionsintersexual selection: males display certain traits to femalesExample: birdsThese birds have huge red air sacs which make them easier for predators to spot. Why would they have evolved these, then?Male Irish elks, now extinct, had 12-foot antlers. Describe how sexual selection could have caused such an exaggerated trait to evolve.
2011.5 The isolation of populations can lead to speciation. Populations become isolated when there is no gene flow.Isolated populations adapt to their own environments.Genetic differences can add up over generations.Two small, isolated populations of dolphins in Tin Can Bay and the Great Sandy Strait are at risk of extinction, and are the focus of a study by Southern Cross University researcher Daniele Cagnazzi. Mr Cagnazzi has been studying dolphins along the Queensland coast for the last three years.~ABC News
21Reproductive isolation can occur between isolated populations. members of different populations cannot mate successfullyPrezygotic: temporal isolation, behavioral isolationPostzygotic: hybrid sterilityfinal step to becoming separate speciesSpeciation is the rise of two or more species from one existing species.
22Populations can become isolated in several ways. Behavioral barriers can cause isolation.called behavioral isolationincludes differences in courtship or mating behaviors
23Geographic barriers can cause isolation. called geographic isolationphysical barriers divide populationTemporal barriers can cause isolation.called temporal isolationtiming of reproductive periods prevents mating
2411.6 Evolution through natural selection is not random. Natural selection can have direction.The effects of natural selection add up over time.
25Convergent evolution describes evolution toward similar traits in unrelated species What examples can you think of of convergent evolution?
26Divergent evolution describes evolution toward different traits in closely related species. Other examples of divergent evolution?ancestorkit foxred fox
27Species can shape each other over time. Two or more species can evolve together through coevolution.evolutionary paths become connectedspecies evolve in response to changes in each other
28Coevolution can occur in beneficial relationships.
29Coevolution can occur in competitive relationships, sometimes called evolutionary.
30Species can become extinct. Extinction is the elimination of a species from Earth.Background extinctions occur continuously at a very low rate.Same rate as speciationFew species in small areacaused by local changes in environment
31Mass extinctions are rare but much more intense. destroy many species at global levelcatastrophic events5 in last 600 million years
32Speciation often occurs in patterns. A pattern of punctuated equilibrium exists in the fossil record.theory proposed by Eldredge and Gould in 1972Episodes of speciation occur suddenly followed by periods of little changerevised Darwin’s idea
34Ch. 11 Review Topics gene pool allele frequency genetic drift founder effectbottleneck effectcoevolutiondivergent evolutionconvergent evolution
35Ch. 12 Review Topics Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras half-life 5 types of fossils
36Also know… Charles Darwins’ observations on Galapagos Islands Scientists and their contributions to evolution: Lamarck, E.Darwin, Linnaeus4 principles of natural selection and their application (adaptation, variation, overproduction, descent with modificationReasons for genetic variation (mutations, recombination, etc.)3 types of selection (directional, disruptive, stabilizing) and applicationIsolations: reproductive, behavioral, temporal, geographicLabs for this Unit: Beak Lab, Lethal Alleles Lab (Tigers born without fur, two colors of M&M’s)– know the basic procedure and what principles of evolution the lab demonstrated, if you weren’t here for a lab, check with someone else to get the overall idea of what we did