5 Flight Brief Brief Introduce Practice a. QOD (NATOPS / EP / SOP) b. Position corrections after random maneuversc. Comm-out tactical formation signalsd. Wingman deconfliction responsibilitiesIntroduceRandom tactical formation maneuveringComm-out tactical formation maneuveringForced cockpit loadingOffensive combat spreadPracticea. Combat checksb. Voice communicationsc. Formationd. Defensive Combat spreade. Check turnsf. Shackle turns / Off Heading Shackle Turnsg. Tactical turnsh. In-Place turnsi. Gunsight tracking exercisej. Unknown airspeed rendezvousk. Combat spread responsibilitiesl. Situational awarenessm. Lead (if flown)n. Roll-and-go, full flaps / slatso. Precautionary approach (if flown)p. Touch and go landings
6 Tac Admin Fence Checks Initiated by Wing Gunsight Tracking: G’s and Fuel priorSpeed and Angels CommKnock It Off Comm / responsibilities
7 Combat Spread What is it? How to get there Check your heading, generate an airspeed advantage, and take a 10-15° cut away from the lead.
8 Maintaining Combat Spread Priorities1. Bearing LineAirspeed dependent(may need to account for a 5 kt TAS difference with 1000’ of altitude difference)2. Abeam distance3. Altitude
9 Combat Spread Corrections If SuckedWingman needs to accelerate via unload and power addition to reach bearing line.If AcuteWingman needs to decelerate. Different techniques available: 1) Climb to decelerate or 2)maintain altitude, take a cut away and then back into lead to slow downrange travel.If wide or acute,Wingman needs to fly toward or away as appropriate. Care should be given to add enough airspeed and not to turn too much, as doing so will trade the wingman’s wide or tight for a sucked position.
10 Check Turns Into Away Turn will make you acute. Multiple techniques to fix position.Big Picture: Slow your down range travel compared to lead, then fix your altitude and abeam distance.AwayTurn will make you sucked.Big Picture: Increase your down range travel compared to the lead (ie. lower your nose and increase your airspeed), then fix your altitude and abeam distance.
11 Cruise TurnsInto15º AOB until lead disappears under wing for 2-4 seconds, then 45º AOB.CorrectionsSucked / AcuteWide / TightAway45º AOB until crossing lead’s 6 at 2k, then 15º AOB.
12 Tactical Turns Into Away Wait until looking down lead’s intakes. Start a level 14 unit pull to the new heading while maintaining 300 kts.Adjust timing of turn, amount of pull, and airspeed as necessary to come out of turn in position.AwayMake adjustments to fix positioning.
13 In-Place Turns Into Away Make a level 14 unit turn for 180°, maintain 300 kts.Corrections for sucked / acute start.AwayDo NOT float the turn when belly up to lead!
14 Shackle Turns14 unit level turn into lead, putting the original heading on the 45° benchmark (or as appropriate to help fix your position).Maintain 300 kts keeping altitude separation from lead.Wait approx 2 sec then pull 14 units back to the original heading. (Corrections for sucked / acute.
15 Off Heading Shackle Turns Turn to 45° past eventual heading.If wingman’s turn is less than 45°, delay reversal.If wingman’s turn is greater than 45°, then reverse upon reaching reversal heading.
16 Cross Turns 17 unit, nibble of buffet pull into lead. Must maintain 500’ of separation from lead. Overbank to 135deg after flight cross.Use altitude to gain an airspeed advantage and fix your position.Corrections for sucked / acute start.
17 Loose Deuce Started with a Tac turn into the wing. Before it is time for wing to turn, lead will call break turn with the bandit at the wing’s 5 or 7 o’clock high. Wing should make a hard turn into the bandit.Lead tells wing to reverse and calls out his position.Use a series of High and Low Yo-Yo’s to remain in position behind the lead, while keeping a good energy package on the aircraft. Report High Cover and Low Cover as appropriate.Trunk IP will call for a reversal, lead will reverse when wing reports “Roger reverse”.If at low cover, wing turns with lead and moves to high cover at appropriate time. If at high cover, perform either a displacement roll or a reversal as appropriate.When trunk IP decides, swap roles.
19 Unknown Airspeed Rendezvous Continue flying good Tacform until Fenced Out (Master Arm off with Gun deselected and the HUD back in the normal mode) and cleared to join by the lead.When joining, make the rendezvous look like one that you have practiced before. Keep an altitude sanctuary until it is suit cased.Lead will be setting the power and turning to put the RTB heading on the nose.The join will be either a running rendezvous, CV rendezvous, or a combination.
20 G-WARM G-Warm Maneuver Lead climbs to be co-altitude with the wing. Maneuver initiated when lead calls “C/S Accel for G-Warm”. Maneuver executed when wing responds “C/S Two”.Unload until the VV is 12 degrees nose low.At 350 KIAS, lead will call “C/S G-Warm Left (or Right)”. Maneuver executed when wing responds with “C/S Two”. Pull 4 G’s for 90 degrees of heading change.Continue accelerating for 400 KIAS at which time the lead will call “C/S G-Warm Right (or Left)”. Once again, the maneuver is executed when wing responds with “C/S Two”. Make a level 6 G pull back to the original heading.
21 2 Circle Fight Break Turn Evaluation Bubble / Post Attack Window / Control ZoneMisaligned Turn Circles:Target Airspeed KIASLet the geometry work for you, then pull for the shot.
22 HIGH AND LOW YO-YO High Yo-Yo (Lag Maneuver) Decreases Closure Low Yo-Yo (Lead Maneuver)Increases Closure
23 CZ relation to Guns WEZNote that the CZ and the Guns Envelope do not overlap. You cannot employ the gun from the CZ!!No lead required for tracking shot, however you have a high risk of overshooting if closure is not under control.Lead required for snapshot (pipper 1-2 plane lengths in front). Allows for quick shot and a lag back to safety of the CZ to maintain offensive position.Control ZoneSnapshot EnvelopeTracking Envelope
25 Control Zone ± 10° at 2000 ft ± 20° at 4500 ft The goal of the fighter is to arrive in the control zone with range, angles, and closure under control. From there, he can maneuver to shoot the bandit.Must have controlled entry into CZ with relative fuselage alignment. (No more than 20 degrees of misalignment in the front of the CZ and no more than 45 degrees of misalignment in the aft end)Simply flying toward or into the CZ is not enough. The offensive fighter must have a controlled entry in the CZ in order to be effective. This means we must have some sort of fuselage allignment upon entering the CZ.
26 FENCE CHECKS Done after the G-Warm. Gunsight in the HUD (RTGS) Box TACANMaster Arm ONSqueeze the triggerReport “Fenced In”,along with G’s and fuel.
27 HIGH AND LOW COVER High Cover Low Cover Defined as stepped up and outside lead’s turn circle.Low CoverDefined as stepped down and inside lead’s turn circle. Wing shall at no time pass inside the 500’ bubble!
28 DISPLACEMENT ROLLA displacement roll is beneficial when the lead’s reversal will put you on the inside of the lead’s turn and you do not have excessive distance to lose, primarily in high cover.To perform, ease your turn so that you can pick the nose up. With the nose high, canopy roll away from the direction of the new turn to establish yourself on the outside of the new turn circle in high cover.
29 LOOSE DEUCE ROLE SWAPLead will tell wing of a malfunction and ask if he can engage.Wing will engage from the low cover position, if not in position, tell lead to “Stand by” and move to low cover.When ready to engage, tell lead to level his wings and get his nose up. When lead is clear of your flight path, direct him to turn back towards you and describe both your position and the position of the bandit to him. Define the roles of free and engaged fighter and continue to prosecute the bandit.Lead will report high cover, when directed by the trunk IP, report your malfunction to the lead and ask him to engage. Follow his directions and move back to high cover.
30 ADMIN CRUISE Different from phase I cruise form Flown on parade wingline bearingDistance on bearing is about 3-4 plane lengths
31 ATC SPREADATC Spread is flown while under instrument flight rules. (Usually used during prolonged transit time)Wingman must maintain position in “Standard ATC Formation” (which dictates no more than 1nm of separation from lead)Wingman must also match lead’s altitude and may not use variations in altitude to fix position.ATC spread is not graded and simply a tool to allow the student more time flying on bearing at nm.
32 TTO Who will call a TTO? What situations will the TTO be called? SafetyConfusion / MisunderstandingIP ResponsibilitiesRecognize need for TTOExplanation / Instruction as necessaryDocumentation on ATFWhen and how will training resume?
34 Conduct Combat Checks Voice Communications Formation Defensive Combat SpreadCheck TurnsShackle TurnsOff-Heading Shackle TurnsTactical TurnsIn-Place turnsGunsight tracking exerciseUnknown airspeed rendezvousCombat Spread responsibilitiesSituational awarenessLead (if flown)Roll-and-go, full flaps/slats (if done)Precautionary ApproachTouch-and-go landingsLEAD RESERVES THE RIGHT TO DO ANY TURN AT ANY TIME FOR AREA MANAGEMENT!
35 Emergencies Ground Emergencies Abort Rwy Dep / Gnd Ejection Radio/ICS failureLoss of NavaidsLost Plane / Lost SightSystem FailuresDisorientationBird strike/ MidairSAR proceduresEjectionAircrew CoordinationUnderrun
36 STANDARD DEBRIEFING FORMAT The Flight Lead or Pilot-in-Command is responsible for ensuring all flight or crewmembers are thoroughly debriefed on the conduct of the mission utilizing the “S-P-B-E-MS-LL” format outlined below. (Refer to the CTW-1/CTW-2 Expanding Debriefing Guide for specific objectives).SafetyPlanningBriefExecutionMission SuccessLessons Learned