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Competitive Interactions on a Reef. Kinds of Competition between Corals Connell (‘73) Contact and interaction between soft tissues of coral No contact.

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Presentation on theme: "Competitive Interactions on a Reef. Kinds of Competition between Corals Connell (‘73) Contact and interaction between soft tissues of coral No contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Competitive Interactions on a Reef

2 Kinds of Competition between Corals Connell (‘73) Contact and interaction between soft tissues of coral No contact between coral colonies Direct CompetitionIndirect Competition

3 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 1. Mesenterial Filaments

4 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 1. Mesenterial Filaments FaviidaeMeandrinidaeMussidae

5 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 2. Sweeper Tentacles

6 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 3. Sweeper Polyps (Goniopora)

7 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 4. Mucous Secretion (Fungia)

8 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 5. Histoincompatibility

9 Kinds of Competition between Corals Direct Competition 6. Overgrowth

10 Kinds of Competition between Corals Indirect Competition 1. Overtopping

11

12 Mechanisms for Algal Effects on Corals Microalgae Filamentous Foliose Crustose Calcareous Branching Digitate Tabulate Encrusting Massive Mushroom O, C O, C O, C O, C O, C - O, O, O, O, O, - O, - - O, O, - O, Macrophytes S, C S, C S, C S, A S, A - O = OVERGROWTH, C = CHEMICAL, S = SHADING, A = ABRASION

13 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06

14 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 3 m

15 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 Available space Time

16 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 Overgrowth Crustose corallines Sponges Macroalgae Sponges Crustose corallines Ascidians

17 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 Unoccupied Coralline algae Macroalgae Sponges % Cover % Cover Time

18 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘ % Mortality

19 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 Coral Recruits - Had 16 species recruit – 4 did well - Most successful corals – Agaricia, Montastrea, Tubastrea - Most successful corals – brooders - Most successful corals – shallower panels

20 Competition and New Recruits Vermeij, ‘06 Greatest contributors to recruit mortality 1. Sponges 2. Bivalves

21 Competition among Cryptic Metazoa

22 Jackson (‘92) - artificial substrates % Cover Time Free space Colonials Solitary

23 Competition among Cryptic Metazoa Jackson (‘92) - artificial substrates Abundance Time % suspended cells retained Sponges Bryozoans

24 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2001 Lizard Island

25 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2001 Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus Gobiodon histrio Gobiodon quinquestrigiatus

26 Competition among Reef Fish Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus Gobiodon histrio Gobiodon quinquestrigiatus 5 cm

27 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2001 Acropora gemmifera Acropora nasuta Commonly usedOccasionally used

28 Competition among Reef Fish

29 Munday et al, 2001 Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus G. histrioG. q. Habitat Use - % Overlap G.axillarisG. brochusG. rivulatus G. quinquestrigiatus

30 Competition among Reef Fish Acropora nasuta Acropora gemmifera HABITAT CHOICE

31 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2002 Acropora nasuta Acropora gemmifera ??? HABITAT CHOICE

32 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2002 Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus G. histrio G. quinquestrigatus Acropora nasutaAcropora gemmifera

33 Competition among Reef Fish Munday et al, 2002 Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus G. histrio G. quinquestrigatus CACP * ** * HABITAT CHOICE EFFECT OF COMPETITOR

34 Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon histrio HABITAT CHOICE EFFECT OF SIZE AND PRIOR RESIDENCE No prior resident G axillaris prior resident A < H A = H A > H A < H A = H A > H WINLOSEDRAW Outcome for G. axillaris

35 Gobiodon histrio HABITAT CHOICE EFFECT OF SIZE AND PRIOR RESIDENCE No prior resident G. brochus prior resident B < H B = H B > H B < H B = H B > H WINLOSEDRAW Outcome for G. brochus Gobiodon brochus

36 REMOVAL AND RECOLONIZATION Gobiodon axillaris Gobiodon unicolor Gobiodon rivulatus Gobiodon brochus G. histrio G. quinquestrigatus Removal Control Removal of G. histrio Increase in abundanceDecrease

37 REMOVAL AND RECOLONIZATION G. axillaris G. unicolorG. rivulatus G. brochusG. histrioG. quinquestrigatus G. histrio G. axillaris G. quinquestrigatus Proportion of fish recolonizing

38 Competition among Reef Fish CONCLUSIONS 1. G. axillaris and G. brochus compete with G. histrio for space (removal of G. histrio leads to increases in the other two) 2. Other species do not compete with G. histrio for space (even though there can be high overlap – e.g. G. quinquestrigatus) Argues for different methods of coexistence

39 Competition among Reef Fish CONCLUSIONS 3. G. axillaris and G. histrio coexist in experimental plots (G. axillaris – reef flat, G. histrio – reef crest) 4. Colonies of A. nasuta that were occupied by G. quinquestrigatus are recolonized by G. quinquestrigatus but not colonies of A. nasuta occupied by other species. (G. quinquestrigatus uses different component of A. nasuta population)

40 Coral – Algal Competition (Jompa and McCook, 2002) Lobophora variegataPorites cylindrica

41 Coral – Algal Competition (Jompa and McCook, 2002) 1. Herbivory Experimental Design Full Cage No Cage Partial Cage 2. CompetitorAlgal removal Control Coral damage Measured growth and mortality of P. cylindrica and L. variegatus

42 Coral – Algal Competition (Jompa and McCook, 2002) Tissue mortality (P. cylindrica) Open Full Partial Highest mortality where herbivores are excluded Alga present Alga absent

43 Coral – Algal Competition (Jompa and McCook, 2002) Skeletal extension (P. cylindrica) Open Full Partial Highest growth when algae are absent Alga present Alga absent

44 Coral – Algal Competition (Jompa and McCook, 2002) Growth (L. variegata) Open Full Partial Highest growth when corals are damaged Coral present Coral absent


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