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Introduction to Algorithms 6.046J/18.401J L ECTURE 16 Greedy Algorithms (and Graphs) Graph representation Minimum spanning trees Optimal substructure Greedy choice Prim’s greedy MST algorithm Prof. Charles E. Leiserson November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.1

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.2 Graphs (review) Definition. A directed graph (digraph) G = (V, E) is an ordered pair consisting of a set V of vertices (singular: vertex), a set E ⊆ V V of edges. In an undirected graph G = (V, E), the edge set E consists of unordered pairs of vertices. In either case, we have | E | = O(V 2 ). Moreover, if G is connected, then | E | | V | –1, which implies that lg | E | = (lg V). (Review CLRS, Appendix B.)

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.3 The adjacency matrix of a graph G = (V, E), where V = {1, 2, …, n}, is the matrix A[1.. n, 1.. n] given by 1 if (i, j) E, 0 if (i, j) ∉ E. Adjacency-matrix representation A[i,j] =

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.4 The adjacency matrix of a graph G = (V, E), where V = {1, 2, …, n}, is the matrix A[1.. n, 1.. n] given by 1 if (i, j) E, 0 if (i, j) ∉ E. Adjacency-matrix representation A[i,j] = 12341234 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 A 1 2 3 4 (V 2 ) storage dense representation. 2 1 3 4

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.5 Adjacency-list representation An adjacency list of a vertex v V is the list Adj[v] of vertices adjacent to v. 2 1 3 4 Adj[1] = {2, 3} Adj[2] = {3} Adj[3] = {} Adj[4] = {3}

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.6 Adjacency-list representation An adjacency list of a vertex v V is the list Adj[v] of vertices adjacent to v. 2 1 3 4 Adj[1] = {2, 3} Adj[2] = {3} Adj[3] = {} Adj[4] = {3} For undirected graphs, | Adj[v] | = degree(v). For digraphs, | Adj[v] | = out-degree(v).

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.7 Adjacency-list representation An adjacency list of a vertex v V is the list Adj[v] of vertices adjacent to v. 2 1 3 4 Adj[1] = {2, 3} Adj[2] = {3} Adj[3] = {} Adj[4] = {3} For undirected graphs, | Adj[v] | = degree(v). For digraphs, | Adj[v] | = out-degree(v). Handshaking Lemma: ∑ v ∈ V = 2 | E | for undirected graphs ⇒ adjacency lists use È(V + E) storage — a sparse representation (for either type of graph)

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.8 Minimum spanning trees Input: A connected, undirected graph G = (V, E) with weight function w : E → R. For simplicity, assume that all edge weights are distinct. (CLRS covers the general case.)

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.9 Minimum spanning trees Input: A connected, undirected graph G = (V, E) with weight function w : E → R. For simplicity, assume that all edge weights are distinct. (CLRS covers the general case.) Output: A spanning tree T — a tree that connects all vertices — of minimum weight: w (T) = w(u,v). (u,v) T

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.10 Example of MST 6 12 14 8 5 7 9 15 3 10

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.11 Example of MST 6 12 14 8 5 7 9 15 3 10

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.12 Optimal substructure MST T: (Other edges of G are not shown.)

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.13 Optimal substructure MST T: (Other edges of G are not shown.) Remove any edge (u, v) ∈ T. u v

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.14 Optimal substructure MST T: (Other edges of G are not shown.) Remove any edge (u, v) T. u v

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.15 Optimal substructure MST T: (Other edges of G are not shown.) Remove any edge (u, v) T. Then, T is partitioned into two subtrees T 1 and T 2. T1T1 u v T2T2

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.16 Optimal substructure MST T: (Other edges of G are not shown.) Remove any edge (u, v) T. Then, T is partitioned into two subtrees T 1 and T 2. Theorem. The subtree T 1 is an MST of G 1 = (V 1, E 1 ), the subgraph of G induced by the vertices of T 1 : V 1 = vertices of T 1, E 1 = { (x, y) E : x, y V 1 }. T1T1 u v T2T2 Similarly for T 2.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.17 Proof of optimal substructure Proof. Cut and paste: w(T) = w(u, v) + w(T 1 ) + w(T 2 ). If T 1 were a lower-weight spanning tree than T 1 for G 1, then T = {(u, v)} ∪ T 1 ∪ T 2 would be a lower-weight spanning tree than T for G.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.18 Proof of optimal substructure Proof. Cut and paste: w(T) = w(u, v) + w(T 1 ) + w(T 2 ). If T 1 were a lower-weight spanning tree than T 1 for G 1, then T = {(u, v)} ∪ T 1 ∪ T 2 would be a lower-weight spanning tree than T for G. Do we also have overlapping subproblems? Yes.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.19 Proof of optimal substructure Proof. Cut and paste: w(T) = w(u, v) + w(T 1 ) + w(T 2 ). If T 1 were a lower-weight spanning tree than T 1 for G 1, then T = {(u, v)} ∪ T 1 ∪ T 2 would be a lower-weight spanning tree than T for G. Do we also have overlapping subproblems? Yes. Great, then dynamic programming may work! Yes, but MST exhibits another powerful property which leads to an even more efficient algorithm.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.20 Hallmark for “greedy” algorithms Greedy-choice property A locally optimal choice is globally optimal.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.21 Hallmark for “greedy” algorithms Greedy-choice property A locally optimal choice is globally optimal. Theorem.Let T be the MST of G = (V, E), and let A ⊆ V. Suppose that (u, v) E is the least-weight edge connecting A to V – A. Then, (u, v) T.

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∈ A ∈ V – A November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.22 Proof of theorem Proof. Suppose (u, v) ∉ T. Cut and paste. T:T: v (u, v) = least-weight edge connecting A to V – A u

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A V – A November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.23 Proof of theorem Proof. Suppose (u, v) ∉ T. Cut and paste. T:T: v (u, v) = least-weight edge connecting A to V – A u Consider the unique simple path from u to v in T.

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A V – A November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.24 Proof of theorem Proof. Suppose (u, v) ∉ T. Cut and paste. T:T: v (u, v) = least-weight edge connecting A to V – A u Consider the unique simple path from u to v in T. Swap (u, v) with the first edge on this path that connects a vertex in A to a vertex in V – A.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.25 Proof of theorem Proof. Suppose (u, v) ∉ T. Cut and paste. T : A V – A v (u, v) = least-weight edge connecting A to V – A u Consider the unique simple path from u to v in T. Swap (u, v) with the first edge on this path that connects a vertex in A to a vertex in V – A. A lighter-weight spanning tree than T results.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.26 Prim’s algorithm I DEA : Maintain V – A as a priority queue Q. Key each vertex in Q with the weight of the least- weight edge connecting it to a vertex in A. Q ← V key[v] ← ∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ dou ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) ⊳ D ECREASE -K EY [v] ← u At the end, {(v, [v])} forms the MST.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.27 Example of Prim’s algorithm ∞ 6 12 14 3 8 5 ∞ 7 10 9 15 ∞∞∞∞ ∞ 0 ∞∞∞∞ A V – A

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.28 Example of Prim’s algorithm ∞ 6 12 14 3 8 5 ∞ 7 10 9 15 ∞∞∞∞ ∞∞∞∞ A V – A ∞ 0∞ 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.29 Example of Prim’s algorithm ∞ 6 12 14 3 8 5 10 7 10 9 15 ∞∞∞∞ ∞ A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.30 Example of Prim’s algorithm ∞ 6 12 14 3 8 5 10 7 10 9 15 ∞∞∞∞ ∞ A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.31 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 10 7 10 9 15 ∞∞ A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.32 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 10 7 10 9 15 ∞∞ A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.33 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.34 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.35 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.36 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.37 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.38 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.39 Example of Prim’s algorithm 6 12 14 3 8 5 8 7 10 9 15 A V – A 0

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.40 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.41 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u (V) total

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.42 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u (V) total |V | time s

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.43 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u (V) total |V | time s degree(u) times

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.44 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u (V) total |V | time s degree(u) times Handshaking Lemma (E) implicit D ECREASE -K EY ’s.

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.45 Analysis of Prim Q ← V key[v] ←∞ for all v V key[s] ← 0 for some arbitrary s V while Q ∅ do u ← E XTRACT -M IN (Q) for each v Adj[u] do if v Q and w(u, v) < key[v] then key[v] ← w(u, v) [v] ← u (V) total |V | time s degree(u) times Handshaking Lemma (E) implicit D ECREASE -K EY ’s. Time = (V)·T EXTRACT-MIN + (E)·T DECREASE-KEY

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.46 Analysis of Prim (continued) Time = (V) · T EXTRACT-MIN + (E) · T DECREASE-KEY

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.47 Analysis of Prim (continued) Time = (V) · T EXTRACT-MIN + (E) · T DECREASE-KEY Q T EXTRACT-MIN T DECREASE-KEY Total

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.48 Analysis of Prim (continued) Time = (V) · T EXTRACT-MIN + (E) · T DECREASE-KEY Q T EXTRACT-MIN T DECREASE-KEY Total array O(V) O(1) O(V 2 )

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.49 Analysis of Prim (continued) Time = (V) · T EXTRACT-MIN + (E) · T DECREASE-KEY Q T EXTRACT-MIN T DECREASE-KEY Total array O(V) O(1) O(V 2 ) binary heap O(lg V) O(lg V) O(E lg V)

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.50 Analysis of Prim (continued) Time = (V) · T EXTRACT-MIN + (E) · T DECREASE-KEY Q T EXTRACT-MIN T DECREASE-KEY Total array O(V) O(1) O(V 2 ) binary heap O(lg V) O(lg V) O(E lg V) Fibonacci heap O(lg V) amortized O(1) amortized O(E + V lg V) worst case

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.51 MST algorithms Kruskal’s algorithm (see CLRS): Uses the disjoint-set data structure (Lecture 10). Running time = O(E lg V).

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November 9, 2005Copyright © 2001-5 by Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. LeisersonL16.52 MST algorithms Kruskal’s algorithm (see CLRS): Uses the disjoint-set data structure (Lecture 10). Running time = O(E lg V). Best to date: Karger, Klein, and Tarjan [1993]. Randomized algorithm. O(V + E) expected time.

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