# Effective Approaches for Partial Satisfaction (Over-subscription) Planning Romeo Sanchez * Menkes van den Briel ** Subbarao Kambhampati * * Department.

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Effective Approaches for Partial Satisfaction (Over-subscription) Planning Romeo Sanchez * Menkes van den Briel ** Subbarao Kambhampati * * Department of Computer Science and Engineering ** Department of Industrial Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Outline  Background  Example  Approaches  Optiplan  Altaltps  Sapaps  Planning graph heuristics  Results

For all your demands, you could’ve bought me a better flash memory stick at least! In one day achieve the following 100 goals: RockData at WP 1, high-res pics at WP 2 & 3, …., SoilData at WP 100 No way I can achieve that many goals in one day It’s hard but here is the best I can do: Goal1, Goal5, Goal99 Given: Actions with costs, and goals with utilities, find a plan that has a highest {utility – cost} Previous Approaches:  Highest utility goal first  Estimating the set of most beneficial goals Background

 Complete satisfaction (traditional) planning  Goal state G is a list of conjunctions: G = g 1  g 2  …  g n  A plan that achieves n – 1 goal fluents is as good as a plan that achieves 0 goal fluents  Partial satisfaction planning (PSP)  Goal state G is a list of fluents: G = {g 1, g 2, …, g n }  Goal fluents might have utilities, actions might have costs, therefore achieving a partial plan might be more beneficial than the “null” plan.  Achieving all goal fluents might be impossible…  The goal state G may contain logically conflicting fluents  There might not be enough resources to achieve all fluents in G (:goal (and (pointing satellite1 moon) (pointing satellite1 mars) )) (:goal (and (have_rock rover1 waypoint1) (have_rock rover1 waypoint2) ))

PSP problems  PSP Net benefit:  Given a planning problem P = (F, A, I, G), and for each action a “cost” c a  0, and for each goal fluent f  G a “utility” u f  0, and a positive number k. Is there a finite sequence of actions  = (a 1, a 2, …, a n ) that starting from I leads to a state S that has net benefit  f  (S  G) u f –  a  c a  k. PLAN EXISTENCE PLAN LENGTH PSP GOAL LENGTH PSP GOAL PLAN COSTPSP UTILITY PSP UTILITY COST PSP NET BENEFIT

Example  Getting from Las Vegas (LV) to San Jose (SJ) C: action cost U(G): utility of goal G G1,G2,G3,G4: goals P = {travel(LV,DL), travel(DL,SJ), travel(SJ,SF)} achieves G1, G2, G3

Approaches  Optiplan  Integer programming based STRIPS planner  Solves the PSP problem by encoding it as an integer program  Altaltps  Heuristic regression planner  Solves the PSP problem through a goal selection heuristic  Sapaps  Heuristic forward state space planner  Solves the PSP problem using an anytime A* algorithm

Optiplan  Optiplan planning system:  Combines Graphplan (Blum & Furst, 1995) with State Change Encoding (Vossen et al., 1999)  As in the Blackbox planning system, Graphplan reduces the encoding size generated by Optiplan  Computes optimal plans for a given parallel length  Objective:   f  G U f (x_add f,n + x_preadd f,n + x_maintain f,n ) –  l  L  a  A C a y a,l  Sum of goal utilities – Sum of action cost

Optiplan and partial satisfaction Objective  0 / Minimize #actions Constraints  Fluent changes  Satisfy initial state  Satisfy goal  Fluent implications  Action implications  Total satisfaction planning: goal satisfaction is treated as a hard constraint Objective  Maximize net benefit  Goal utility – action cost Constraints  Fluent changes  Satisfy initial state  Fluent implications  Actions implications  Partial satisfaction planning: goal satisfaction is treated as a soft constraint

Graphplan based cost propagation

AltAlt ps  AltAlt planning system  Heuristic state-space search planner (Nguyen, Kambhampati & Sanchez, 2002)  Combines Graphplan (Blum & Furst, 1995) with heuristic state- space search techniques (Bonet, Loerincs & Geffner, 1997; Bonet Geffner, 1999; McDermott 1999)  AltAlt ps planning system  Total enumeration on 2 n goal subsets is too costly  Selects a promising subset of the top-level goals upfront  Searches for a plan using a regression state space search combined with cost-sensitive planning graph heuristics.

AltAlt ps cost propagation  Using a planning graph structure  Propositions in the initial state come for free (they have zero cost)  Other propositions have costs computed as follows:  Propagation procedures  Max-propagation  Sum-propagation 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 55 8 55 3 l=0l=1l=2 h l (p) = Cost of proposition p at level l 0 if p  I h l (p) =min{h l-1 (p), cost(a) + C l (a)} if l > 0  otherwise C l (a) = max{h l-1 (q) : q  prec(a)} C l (a) =  q  prec(a) h l-1 (q) 44

AltAlt ps goal set selection  Main idea  Start with the original goal set G and an empty goal set G’  Iteratively add goals to G’ as long as the estimated NET BENEFIT increases  The cost of adding another goal g to G’ depends on the goals that are already in G’ G’ G’  g Cost for achieving G’ Residual cost for g Relaxed plan for G’ (R’p) Rp for G’  g biased to re-use actions in R’p

AltAlt ps cost-sensitive relaxed plan heuristic  General procedure  States are ranked during search using the relaxed plan heuristic and the propagated costs  The idea is to compute the cost of a relaxed plan Rp in terms of the costs of the actions composing it.  Heuristic value for S equal h(S) =  a  Rp cost(a) 1. Given a state S, remove the (sub)goal g from S that has highest h l (g) 2. Select the action that supports g with lowest cost ( cost(a) + C l (a) ) 3. Regress S over a to get S’ = S  prec(a) \ eff(a) 4. Stop when each proposition q  S is present in the initial state

Sapaps

 Nodes evaluation:  g(S) = U(S) – C(S)  h(S) = U(RP(S)) – C(RP(S))  Beneficial Node:  g(S) > 0 or U(S) > C(S)  Termination Node:  V S’: g(S) > f(S’) A*: f(S) = g(S) + h(S) A1: Navigate(X,Y)A2: SampleSoil(Y) A3: TakePicture A4: Navigate(Y,Z) A5: SampleRock g(S) = Util(HasSoilData) – Cost(A1,A2) h(S) = Util(Apply(A3,S)) – Cost(A3) Anytime A* Algorithm: Search through best beneficial nodes SAPA PS : a forward A* approach for PSP

Heuristic: Variation of SAPA’s Approach Heuristically extracting the least cost relaxed plan using cost-function Remove “unbeneficial” goals and related actions G1 G2 G3 A1 A2 A3 A4 → G1 G2 A1 A3 C(A1) + C(A2) > U(G3) SAPA PS : heuristic

Empirical results

Future work

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