7Scope and Fundamental Assumptions of Statistical Mechanics ▷(n1, n2, …, nk)로 정의되는 하나의 macrostate를 만들기 위해,있을 수 있는 수많은 경우의 수 하나하나를 microstate라 한다.▷ 어떠한 시스템에 가능한 (quantum mechanically accessible 한)macrostate (하나하나가 (n1, n2, …, nk)로 정의되는)의 mentalcollection을 ensemble이라 한다.▷ 같은 energy level에서 모든 microstate의 실현 확률은 동등하다.▷ Ensemble average는 time average와 같다.
8Number of ways of distribution : in k cells with gi and Ei ▷ Distinguishable without Pauli exclusion principle▷ Indistinguishable without Pauli exclusion principlefor gi with ni▷ Indistinguishable with Pauli exclusion principlefor gi with ni
9Evaluation of the Most Probable Macrostate – Boltzman
10→ Evaluation of the Most Probable Macrostate – B-E & F-D Bose-Einstein Distribution→Fermi-Dirac Distribution
11Definition of Entropy and Significance of β ▷ Thermal contact 상태에 있는 두 부분으로 이루어진 Isolated System을 고려.이에 대한 평형 조건은Classical Thermodynamics에서는 maximum entropy (S)Statistical mechanics에서는 maximum probability (Ω)▷ S와 Ω는 monotonic relation을 가지며→
12Calculation of Macroscopic Properties from the Partition Function
16Equipartition Theorem The average energy of a particle per independent component of motion istranslational kinetic energy :rotational kinetic energy :vibrational energy :kinetic energy for each independent component of motion has a form of
17Equipartition Theorem The average energy of a particle per independent component of motion is※ for a monoatomic ideal gas :for diatomic gases :for polyatomic molecules which are soft and vibrate easilywith many frequencies, say, q:※ for liquids and solids, the equipartition principle does not work
18Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – Background & Concept 3N independent (weakly interacting) but distinguishablesimple harmonic oscillators.for N simple harmonic vibratorsaverage energy per vibrator
19Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – number density Let dNv be the number of oscillators whose frequency liesbetween v and v + dvwhere g(v), the number of vibrators per unit frequency band,satisfy the conditionThe energy of N particles of the crystal
20Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – Einstein All the 3N equivalent harmonic oscillators have the same frequency vEDefining Einstein characteristic temperature
21Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – Debye A crystal is a continuous medium supporting standing longitudinaland transverse wavesset
22Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – Comparison
23Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – More about Debye Behavior ofat T → ∞ and T → 0at T → ∞→ x2at T → 0: Debye’s T3 law
24Einstein and Debye Model for Heat Capacity – More about Cp for T << TF
25Statistical Interpretation of Entropy – Numerical Example A rigid container is divided into two compartments of equal volume by a partition. One compartment contains 1 mole of ideal gas A at 1 atm, and the other compartment contains 1 mole of ideal gas B at 1 atm.(a) Calculate the entropy increase in the container if the partition between the two compartments is removed.(b) If the first compartment had contained 2 moles of ideal gas A, what would have been the entropy increase due to gas mixing when the partition was removed?(c) Calculate the corresponding entropy changes in each of the above two situations if both compartments had contained ideal gas A.