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Cayley Theorem Every group is isomorphic to a permutation group.

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Example: U(10) U(10) = {1, 3, 7, 9} Definition: For g in U(10), let T g (x)= gx T 1 (x) = T 3 (x) = T 7 (x) = T 9 (x) = x T 1 = 3x T 3 = ( ) 7x T 7 = ( ) 9x T 9 =(1 9)(3 7)

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Every group is isomorphic to a permutation group Proof: Let G be any group. 1.For g in G, define T g (x) = gx. We show T g is a permutation on G. 2.Let S = {T g | for g in G} We show S is a permutation group. 3.Define the map :G S by (g)=T g We show is an isomorphism.

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1. T g is a permutation on G. Suppose T g (x) = T g (y). Then gx = gy. By left cancellation, x=y. Hence T g is 1 to 1. Choose any y in G. Let x = g -1 y Then T g (x) = gx = gg -1 y = y So T g is onto. This shows that T g is a permutation.

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2. {T g | g in G} is a group The operation is composition. For a,b,x, T a T b (x) = T a (bx) = a(bx) = (ab)x =T ab (x) So T a T b = T ab (*) From (*), T e T a = T ea = T a, So T e is the identity in S. If b = a -1 we have, T a T b = T ab = T e So T a -1 = T b and S has inverses. Function composition is associative. Therefore, S is a group.

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3. (g) = T g is isomorphism 1.Choose a, b in G. Suppose (a) = (b). Then T a = T b. In particular, for any x in G, T a (x) = T b (x) ax = bx a = b Therefore is one-to-one.

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(g) = T g is isomorphism 2.Choose any T g in S. Then (g) = T g Therefore, is onto.

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(g) = T g is isomorphism 3.Choose any a, b in G. Then (ab) = T ab = T a T b by (*) = (a) (b) Therefore, is Operation Preserving. It follows that is an isomorphism.

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Why do we care? The permutation group we constructed is called the Left Regular Representation of G. Every abstract group can be represented in a concrete way It shows that abstract groups are all permutation groups, unifying the study of both.

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