2 Defining RaceIdeology of racism and its evolution
3 The great chain of being: naturalizing human differences, linking difference to inferiority, the standard of whiteness.
4 Political smear from 1867, against George C. Gorham’s gubernatorialbid in California
5 Atlantic Ocean became a highway as a result of the slave trade, 16th-19th Centuries. Brazil & the Caribbean leading destinations for African slaves. Fueled by racistideology (naturalness of otherness) and demand for labor.
6 Geographies of Race and Racism How does race “make place”?Spatial expression of institutionalized racismChinatown: San Francisco & Vancouver, B.C.South Africa
23 Ethnic Interaction: Assimilation Pluralism Heterolocalism Some 40,000 Vietnamese live in and around Washington D.C., but at the level of theCensus tract nowhere do they make up more than 18% of the population. By contrast, they accounted for less than 1% of the population in most census tracts.
24 Ethnic Settlements: Ethnic Islands Ethnic Neighborhoods Ethnoburbs Location quotientsThe Hopi and Navajo Reservations (population approximately 7000 and 174,000 respectively) are ethnic islands and enclaves in the US. When mapped, we can see that they also form enclaves of each other.
27 Environmental Justice: San Francisco Bay Area Population by race/ethnicity and proximity to a toxic release facility. Notice how the composition of population groups changes with increasing distance from the toxic release facility.
28 Households within one mile of a toxic release facility by income, race/ethnicity.