Defining Race Ideology of racism and its evolution
The great chain of being: naturalizing human differences, linking difference to inferiority, the standard of whiteness.
Political smear from 1867, against George C. Gorham ’ s gubernatorial bid in California
Atlantic Ocean became a highway as a result of the slave trade, 16 th -19 th Centuries. Brazil & the Caribbean leading destinations for African slaves. Fueled by racist ideology (naturalness of otherness) and demand for labor.
Geographies of Race and Racism – How does race “make place”? – Spatial expression of institutionalized racism Chinatown: San Francisco & Vancouver, B.C. South Africa
San Francisco ’ s Chinatown in the 1890s, photograph by Arnold Genthe
Race and Racism on the landscape of South Africa *Evolution of Apartheid Dutch Boers, Afrikaners Afrikaner Nationalist Party Baaskap
Ethnic Interaction: Assimilation Pluralism Heterolocalism Some 40,000 Vietnamese live in and around Washington D.C., but at the level of the Census tract nowhere do they make up more than 18% of the population. By contrast, they accounted for less than 1% of the population in most census tracts.
Ethnic Settlements: Ethnic Islands Ethnic Neighborhoods Ethnoburbs Location quotients The Hopi and Navajo Reservations (population approximately 7000 and 174,000 respectively) are ethnic islands and enclaves in the US. When mapped, we can see that they also form enclaves of each other.
Ethnic Conflict Darfur, Sudan Ethnic Cleansing
Population by race/ethnicity and proximity to a toxic release facility. Notice how the composition of population groups changes with increasing distance from the toxic release facility. Environmental Justice: San Francisco Bay Area
Households within one mile of a toxic release facility by income, race/ethnicity.