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Power in People’s Republic of China (PRC)  China used to be a monarchy with an emperor and a supporting bureaucracy.  Throughout the dynasties preceding.

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Presentation on theme: "Power in People’s Republic of China (PRC)  China used to be a monarchy with an emperor and a supporting bureaucracy.  Throughout the dynasties preceding."— Presentation transcript:



3 Power in People’s Republic of China (PRC)  China used to be a monarchy with an emperor and a supporting bureaucracy.  Throughout the dynasties preceding the PRC, the emperors claimed divine mandate to legitimize their power.  China was the first country to implement a large bureaucracy and a merit system.

4 Power in PRC cont.  China is split into 34 province level divisions.  There are 22/3 provinces, depending on whether Taiwan is included, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities, and 2 special administrative regions (SAR).

5 Power in PRC cont.  The provinces are given semi-federal and some economic and financial autonomy.  The development of the provinces are also vastly unequal. The richest provinces are located on the coast, while the central and western provinces are poor.  Municipalities are essentially a city level province under the direct control of the central government.

6 Power in PRC cont.  The autonomous regions are areas that have a larger percentage of a minority group than Han Chinese.  These regions are theoretically autonomous but in reality they are under strict control by the central government.  SARs are regions are provincial level authorities that have their own government and have a high degree of autonomy.

7 Power in PRC cont.  Chief power is held by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).  All decisions and actions have to be approved by the CCP.  Government officials are handpicked by the CCP leadership and then rubber stamped by the People’s Congress.

8 Political Culture in PRC  One of the most pervasive parts of political culture in China is Confucianism.  Confucianism is an ingrained part of Chinese society that directs everyday life, including government.  Chinese society also has a collective psychology that is based on benefiting the collective group rather than the individual.

9 Political Culture in PRC cont.  This collective psychology creates a legacy of benign authoritarianism, bureaucratic rationality, and respect for learning and the established order.  After the fall of the dynasties, there began a rapid change in which modern ideas clashed with traditional values, causing the Cultural Revolution and the Tianmen Square incident.

10 Political Culture in PRC cont.  The clash of values began a shift toward more democratic ideas instead of the authoritarian of the Maoist and Dynastic periods.  The rise of an entrepreneurial class further causes conflict by generating a force for political change.  The political change threatens the current regime and will contribute to the democratization movement.

11 Supranational Org. and PRC  The PRC is part of organizations such as the IMF and UN.  In terms of international power, China is more of an economic power house than a real international force. However, China is building up on military power and increasing its influence in the Indian Ocean region.

12 PRC Regime  The PRC is a communist regime with a semi-democratic government.  PRC is still very strong-handed and will use force to eliminate threats to their power.  Any dissenters are at the risk of being arrested or assassinated by the PRC.

13 PRC Economic System  Communism is still the main system of governance for the PRC.  The PRC still maintains control of the economy but has opened up to a capitalist free trade system.


15 CCP  Controls all aspects of the Government  Has a hand in controlling the Military, Legislature, Executive, and Judicial.  Penetrated into village level through party committees.  In cities, CCP has key roles in neighborhood committees.

16 CONTINUED  Every level of government or administrative hierarchy has party committee which can monitor the government at that level.  Party committees have the power to dominate local decisions and can even intervene in economic matters.

17 Structure of the Political System  Administrative hierarchy of government, legislatures, courts and the CCP.  The Administrative hierarchy runs from Central government in Beijing, to provinces, municipalities (district), county, township, administrative village, natural villages.  In present conditions, the CCP dominates all levels of government except the economy.

18 Cont.  Power within the Government is also based upon “guanxi” – the political relationships  An example of this power is shown by the actions of Deng Xiaoping. He mobilized the entire country in 1992 to speed up the reform process, even though his formal political post was President of Chinese Bridge Association.

19 Legislative National People’s Congress NPC Standing Committee Provincial-level People’s Congresses County-level People’s Congresses Township People’s Congresses Representative Village Committee CPPCC Party National Party Congress Central Committee Politburo Secretariat Central Discipline Inspection Commission Organization Dept Rural Work Dept Propaganda Dept Provincial-level Party Committees Municipal Party Committees County-level Party Committees Township Party Committees Village Party Committees Military Affairs Commission Standing Committee of the Politburo Judicial Supreme People’s Procurator Supreme People’s Court Intermediate & Lower Court & Procurators Executive Ministries and Commissions Provincial-level Bureaus County-level Bureaus Prefecture Bureaus Provincial-level Government Prefecture Governments County-level Governments Township Governments Village Committee Prime Minister Vice Premier President & Vice President State Council State Councilors

20 Party Dominance National Party Congress Central Committee Politburo Secretariat Central Discipline Inspection Commission Organization Dept Rural Work Dept Propaganda Dept Provincial-level Party Committees Municipal Party Committees Country-level Party Committees Township Party Committees Village Party Committees Military Affairs Commission Standing Committee of the Politburo

21 The Standing Committee of the Politburo  Its members are the most powerful people in China  The 9 members control all aspects of the political system.  The members control one of the six key political systems 1. party affairs — relations with other CCPs and party life. 2. organizational affairs — allocates all party positions 3. propaganda and education-education, news, colleges 4. political and legal affairs — responsible for courts, police, “ strike hard campaign ” 5. finance and economics — led by Prime Minister 6. Military — CCP tries to maintain civilian control of army

22 The Central Committee  Major players in the political system are full or alternate members of the Central Committee.  The members meet in Plenary Session about twice a year to approve important policy decisions, can totally redirect previous policy and take China in new direction.  For example, in December 1978, Deng overturned the strategies outlined by Hua Guofeng in July 1977, to start the reform movement.

23 Party Secretariat and its Departments  Organizational Department — responsible for all party posts, key government posts, and is in a key position to affect succession.  Propaganda Department — monitors press, tv, organizes ideological study campaigns.  Rural Work Department — makes rural policy.  People ’ s Daily — top CCP newspaper and editorial board making public policy

24 Organization of the Executive Prime Minister Vice Premier President & Vice President State Council Ministries and Commissions Provincial-level Bureaus Prefecture Bureaus Country-level Bureaus Provincial-level Bureaus Prefecture Governments Country-level Governments Township Governments Village Committee State Councilors

25 Executive  High degree of overlapping directorship.  Prime Minister is often 3 rd ranking member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo.  Some Vice-Premiers are members of the standing committee.  Prime Minister needs the support of General Secretary of CCP to start policies.  Without the support of CCP, the executive is powerless.

26 Legislative National People’s Congress NPC Standing Committee Provincial-level People’s Congresses Country-level People’s Congresses Township People’s Congresses Representative Village Committee CPPCC Legislature

27 National People’s Congress  Holds meeting every 5 years to elect government leaders (President, Prime Minister, Vice Premiers, all have to be approved by Standing Committee).  Yearly meetings to address key issues regarding legal affairs, financial affairs, etc.  The meetings do not matter much because the actual initiatives originate from CCP. Also every decision they make must be approved by CCP committees.  During meetings, top leaders visit provincial delegations to discuss regional problems.  The committees, with the help of professionals may input popular ideas into laws and economy.

28 Military Affairs Commission  “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” - Mao  Directly under the guidance of Standing Committee of Politburo.  General Secretary of CCP is also the Chair of MAC.  Vice-Chair can be a civilian, but all other positions are held by military officials.  Jiang Zemin held this post 1 year after giving up head of CCP, hoping it would provide leverage over Hu Jintao.

29 How the CCP controls the Military  “The party must always control the gun, the gun must never control the party” – Mao  Military Affairs Committee.  State Council and Ministry of Finance use budgetary allocations to influence the military.  Every military unit has CCP official who maintain party authority.

30 Military Cont.  Military can speak out on issues regarding Taiwan and Sino-US relations.  After Mao called in military to restore order in the Cultural Revolution, army had influence for years.  The Military failures in Vietnam led to budget cuts, until 1989, when it saved the CCP by attacking the students at Tiananmen Square on Deng ’ s commands.  12-14% annual increase in spending; official defense budget--US$30 billion, foreign estimates--US$90 billion.

31 Center Province and Provincial Level Cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Tianjin) Municipality Rural Urban County Township Administrative Village Natural Village Residence Committee Urban Distinct

32 Party Penetration of Government  Every government office, university department, or enterprise, has a party branch and party secretary.  Every province has a governor and a party secretary. The party secretary holds more influence and power.  In state-owned factories, the party secretary holds more power than the factory manager.  The party secretary will try to intervene in economic decisions.

33 Territorial Party Committees  Party committee dominates at each level of administrative hierarchy.  They often interfere in government decisions.  Members responsible for education, industry, agriculture, population control, propaganda, and selection of key government officials at next level down through Organizational Department.

34 Central Committee Secretariat Organizational Department Lists of Post: Chinese Academy of Science LIST: President Vice President Members of Party Core Group Head of Discipline Inspection Group Ministry of Education LIST: Minister Party Secretary Members of Party Core Group Beijing University LIST: Party Secretary President of University Nomenklatura System and the Power of Appointment  Personnel appointments are the key to its party control and the source of its power over Government.

35 The Judiciary  Personal Power dominates over power of the law. “Rule of Man” overpowers “Rule of Law”  Officials adhere to this policy because it gives them more authority.  All lower levels judges appointed and paid by county party committee.  Outsiders rarely win in another city — Chongqing firm won ’ t sue Shanghai for IPR infringement because it cannot win in Shanghai.

36 Judiciary Cont.  Many Older Judges are ex-military officers with no judicial training.  Crimes deemed sensitive or impacting social order can be judged purely on political terms.  Forced confessions acceptable, defendants have great difficulty proving police made false arrest.  However, there is a growing number of new generation of Judges, some of whom have foreign education  Party Authority remains dominant. Case of young judge ruling for Central government against local People ’ s Congress led to political attack on her


38 A Brief, Brief Timeline  Socialist Phase (1949-1958)  Revolutionary Phase (1958-1976)  Reform (1978- ) 80’s Economic Growth, more open 90’s Income gap, rural/labor protests 2000’s Populism, more emphasis on social equity

39 The State- Stuff (Overview)  No longer controls private and economic life  Institutional and departmental divisions  Center v. Provincial/ Local  Growing civil society  Growing local state  Economic reforms- social and political consequences  Party legitimacy dependent not on ideology but economic growth, stability, and nationalism

40 Cleavages  Most Chinese people (about 75%) live in the rural parts with policy changes often directed towards them.  There is a huge income gap and large disparity b/t rural and urban. Many young people from rural setting s migrate to urban areas, finding unskilled, low-paying labor, often abandoning education and creating education decline in some more rural areas

41 Cleavages  Again, large disparity in education and income between rural and urban areas. The two have had a very experiences with new ideas and technology  Many rural people are able to move to the city in search for work, due to lessened residential restrictions, but many end up in dire poverty (these people make up most of the “floating population” that is, around 100million people who have no ties to any institution, therefore prove to be a problem for the state)

42 Cleavages  Generational cleavages! The oldest, being in their 60s or above, are the power elite, then the next generation under is composed mostly of those who lost educational and career opportunities in the Cultural Revolution. The children of that generation, are likely to become the next power elite, and the children of that generation, are becoming less attached to the CCP and politics in general, and are becoming the new middle and upper class.  Therefore, politics will grow to be less influential as the youngest generations take control  Chinese is not a “language” (ex. Mandarin/Cantonese). Many cannot understand other regional dialects or accents and some people are even illiterate though everyone reads the same language

43 Civil Society  Though the internet and emails are monitored by the CCP, lots of new ideas that the CCP does not approve of, inundate the state and its people all the time, sometimes leading to convictions and jail time, for discussing politics online  Politics is taught in school, in almost every lesson  Teachers and students are still monitored by the CCP

44 Civil Society  Xiaozu- used to be a required form of participation, where the CCP sent out members to educate the peasants, who were often illiterate, about the party, and would teach them parables from Chairman Mao’s little red book.  During the Cultural Revolution, xiaozu became “self-criticism” where each member would have to admit his shortcomings and say that they would improve. Everyone was required to participate

45 Civil Society  There used to be many national movements like the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, and people would have to help forward these mass campaigns, but now compliance to the government and its policies is all that’s required  One could ask for some clarification on meaning of any of the parables, but questioning the wisdom of Mao, was strictly forbidden

46 Media  The state controls the media Every means of communication and form of organized social interaction in China is ultimately under the formal supervision of the Central Propaganda Department and its subsidiaries The state shapes citizens political views and mobilizes political forces Communist Party’s Central Propaganda Division can direct power over media and cultural organizations and has indirect control through various government agencies. Content is regulated ex. Content that jeopardizes national unity and harmful to state ○ Zhang Yihe’s books were banned because he excavated historic relics that criticized problems in China ○ Li Datong was removed as editor-in-chief for discussing controversial topics in newspaper Looser controls than before ○ Leaders concerned about western pop culture

47 Media  Propaganda Under the Communist Party Central Committee’s Propaganda Department (thought to be the most conservative organ of the CCP) The CCP has relied on mass campaigns To keep communists in power To instill ideology although it has shifted to economic changes to stability “Spiritual civilization” euphemism for propaganda on things like public education and ethnics and polite behavior

48 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation  Trends Very hard to document political culture ○ Chinese people didn’t like polls ○ Did not touch on issues of culture and change Mao ○ Wanted to change Chinese society- didn’t ○ Early CCP Policies Collectivism- loyalty to institutions like party & state Struggle and activism- Harmony and Acceptance to status quo Egalitarianism and populism Self- Reliance

49 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation ○ “New socialist man” campaigns failed- cynical, self-interested participation Democracy Movements ○ That democracy could and should be built within existing socialist order ○ Students argued to elites to be more open to criticism Current trends ○ CCP has scaled back efforts to reshape public opinion ○ Looser controls, pop culture  individualism

50 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation  Top down model of participation Opposite to the industrialized democracies Authorities include democracies Authorities include democracies and mass line in rhetoric Citizens are more involved in political life that western counterparts ○ However, they play little part in shaping public policy ○ “mobilized participation”- CCP determines what people should do and then turns them out to meet the regime goals ○ Citizens carry out already approved policies

51 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation  Bottom up? Rural elections- Though candidates are nominated by the CCP, people get to vote ○ In polls, many seem to engage in voluntary political activity ○ Polls show that respondents compared quite favorable w/ respect to western democracies ○ CCP member may get involved more Economic liberalization- more influence economically Protest, critiques, etc. are put down (ex. Tiananmen Square), discourage- China is Perestroika without Glasnost

52 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation  Representation Citizens are not represented geographically but functionally ○ Universities, schools, factories, hotels, temples, etc. form separate electoral districts ○ Candidates are selected by criteria like female, male, entrepreneur, lawyer, etc. ○ CCP believes best policies come from extensive consultation of all social groups People’s congresses do actually debate (not a rubber stamp)- though only one bill has only ever been rejected, it is because it can take years of debate and deliberation However, only the state decides whether certain interests are represented and representation for new groups like migrants are slow to form while class enemies are excluded and groups like peasants are unable to challenge the developmental model

53 Political Culture/Participation/ Citizenship and Social Representation  Communist Party 6-10% of the adult population belong to the CCP- pretty high Most their work is already predetermined Cadres, full time party members, decide most policies Many join b/c it is the only way to get ahead More recently, however, the CCP is looking at university grads and technicians than adherents to ideology ○ Businesses are employing more talented people though ○ So now capitalists can join Complaints- “Capitalists in the Communist Party? You’ve got to be kidding”  Political Movements Strikes by factory workers and peasants + demonstrations by Tibetans, Uygers, and other ethnic minorities ○ Long-term ○ Party rarely hesitated to put down movements with force

54 Problems with the political system  One-Party, interference w/ state administration  No free and open elections, only limited elections to lower level people’s congresses  Right to political participation and freedom circumscribed  No transparency and accountability- corruption, weak legitimacy  Problems w/ enforcing laws and regulations @ the local level

55 Social Movements  Now : Collective Responsibility: everyone must look after his or herself Deference to Moral Leaders: about ¾ Chinese citizens believe that they ought to follow the decisions of their leaders Struggle and Harmony: hard work pays off in personal gain, and national improvement  Cultural Revolution –nationwide chaos and economic disarray due to Mao’s ideas that liberal bourgeois elements were taking over

56 Social Movements  Chinese people got the tiefanwan which means the “iron rice bowl”, implying that and workers in a work unit (danwei) (hospital, farm, mine etc) were to be guaranteed a lifetime job that their children could often inherit, with benefits and a low pay, that was still better than market pay.  Today, the danwei is mostly gone and bankrupt, and people have given it up to find their own jobs

57 Social Movements  With this they could get permission to have children, where social workers kept track of women’s menstrual cycles, decided who could and couldn’t have a child, and the success or failure of conception  Giant group-Falun Gong, stages protests and organizes quiet but dramatic events to show that they still can resist, even though they are often jailed and lose their jobs etc. the government is powerless against such a mass of people

58 Guan Xi  At its most basic, guanxi describes a personal connection between two people in which one is able to prevail upon another to perform a favor or service, or be prevailed upon. The two people need not to be of equal social status. Guanxi can also be used to describe a network of contacts, which an individual can call upon when something needs to be done, and through which he or she can exert influence on behalf of another. In addition, guanxi can describe a state of general understanding between two people: "he/she is aware of my wants/needs and will take them into account when deciding her/his course of future actions which concern or could concern me without any specific discussion or request".

59 Guan Xi  The term is not generally used to describe relationships within a family, although guanxi obligations can sometimes be described in terms of an extended family. The term is also not generally used to describe relationships that fall within other well-defined societal norms (e.g. boss-worker, teacher-student, friendship). The relationships formed by guanxi are personal and not transferable.  When a guanxi network violates bureaucratic norms, it can lead to corruption, and guanxi can also form the basis of patron-client relations.  Ex. My mom told me that in China you can bribe the cops, when like the police tickets you, you simply treat someone you know who knows the police and they take care of it for you

60 2008 Milk Scandal  Bad milk- 300,000 victims  Growing resentment that leaders are unconcerned w/ ordinary civilian lives Asks whether the governments intends to do more than just apologize Offered medical care is not offered to those falling ill before the 12 th  Censorship Reports and coverage toned town

61 Brick Kiln Scandal  Official Negligence and lack of involvement Brick Kiln Scandal- thousands were enslaved in illegal brickyards, tortured, and forced to work in stark conditions  State response Arrests were made, media and officials were vocal However, critiques were later restricted  Conclusion Problems w/ economic development & w/ weak and vulnerable groups Media is limited Accountability issues + transparency


63 Civil Wars  Three Periods Dynasty Period Republic of China Peoples Republic of China

64 The Dynasties  Dynasty Trends Started Out Strong Father-Son or Older to Younger Brother Slowly Decayed in Power Civil War Period New Dynasty

65 The Dynasties  Major Dynasties Shang Dynasty Han Dynasty The Three Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty

66 The Republic of China  Established In 1912  First Democracy of China  Corruption In Its Early Years  Has the 20 th Highest GDP In The World Today

67 Empire of China  1915-1916  Last Attempt of Chinese Monarchy  Yuan Shikai President of ROC Emperor of EOC  Ultimately Failed

68 The Chinese Civil War  Fought Between The KMT And The CPC  Established The Peoples Republic of China  Republic of China Is Now Taiwan

69 Democratization  First Democracy Was Established In 1912 Failed  1949, Chinese Communist Party Promised To Establish Another Democracy Soviet Union’s Influence Was Too Great Democracy Already Failed China Became a Communist Country

70 Democratization  Deng Xiaoping Predecessor of Mao Zedong Recognized Democratic Values Disbanded Collective Farms Allowed Some Free Enterprise  Successors Follow "Deng Xiaoping Thought” Policy

71 Democratization  Tiananmen Square Students Were Morning Hu Yaobang Demanded Freedom And Empowerment Crushed By Military Force Gave Rise To A New Prodemocracy Movement Increased Foreign Pressure

72 Economic Change  Past 70 Years, Switched From A Primarily Agrarian Economy To One Of Industry And Technology  Past 30 Years, Has Changed From A Centrally Planned System To A More Market-Oriented Economy Reforms Began In The 1970’s

73 Economic Change  China Has Increased Tremendously In Economic Growth 3 rd Highest GDP In The World  Joined WTO In 2001 More Trade  Capitalism Has An Increasing Role

74 Economic Change  4% Unemployment Rate  8% Below Poverty Line  Economy Is Growing By 8% A Year Expected To Surpass American Economy In 2020  Corruption Is Still Common  Capitalistic Views Are Continuing To Increase

75 Economic Change  Phasing Out Of Collectivized Agriculture  Foundation Of A Diversified Banking System  Stock Market  Private Sector


77 Definition of Public Policy  Can be defined as the actions a government takes in response to the issues a country faces  Domestic issues- employment rate, censorship, healthcare, poverty  Global issues- pollution, terrorism, tariffs and international trade, defense and security  Goals can be long-term or short-term

78 Definition cont.  Typically a country implements public policy to satisfy the needs of its citizens, to protect their rights as outlined in the country’s constitution, or to better the state’s position on the global scale  For a democratic system, in order for the regime to remain in power, the people must be content with its government’s public policy

79 Goals of the CCP  Most objectives in Chinese public policy, as postulated by the ruling “self-perpetuating elite” of the CCP, involve strengthening its stature at the global level  Aim to garner international respect for China as a economic and political superpower- the elite are extreme nationalists  Very few purely domestic policies- mainly directed toward maintaining the power of the CCP and quelling political differences

80 Adherence to CCP Policies  China consists of both dense urban and subsistent rural populations that exist in sharp contrast  Blanket policies of the CCP are not always beneficial to China’s entire diverse populace  Provincial authorities find ways to work around policies that may endanger local interests

81 Economic Policy  China’s booming economy is focus of most of public policy passed by the CCP  With the third highest GDP in the world, the elite tailor policies to further advance China’s economy and make it a more formidable global power  The unprecedented growth of the Chinese economy has created tremendous disparities in living standards as a result of the unequal distribution of wealth  The rapidity of economic growth has inhibited the government’s ability to plan its development

82 Pollution  China is the world’s leader in producing coal and among the top consumers (1.4 billion metric tons produced per year)  Coal accounts for 74% of the energy produced in China- a distant second is oil/petroleum at 20%  China’s reliance on burning coal and oil creates significant air pollution Acid rain, smog (particulate matter and sulfur dioxide), and greenhouse gases are produced  In certain parts of China, total suspended particles is two to three times the limit specified as safe by the World Health Organization  Lack of civil responsibility for waterways

83 Pollution cont.  Chinese initiatives to counteract the degradation of the country’s environment include investment in nuclear power and renewable hydroelectric power  There are currently two nuclear power facilities in operation, one south of Shanghai and the other near Hong Kong, and several new facilities are under construction with hopes to expand electricity production in the nuclear sector from just over 1% to 3%  The CCP has also authorized the construction of numerous large hydropower dams The Three Gorges Dam is the largest of these and upon completion it will produce 84.7 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity per year It will also block the Yangtze River, the third largest in the world, creating a reservoir that will displace millions

84 Population Policy  With a population officially just over 1.4 billion and an estimated growth rate of about 0.6%, China is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted with mixed results to implement a strict birth limitation policy  China's 2002 Population and Family Planning Law and policy permit one child per family, with allowance for a second child under certain circumstances, especially in rural areas, and with guidelines looser for ethnic minorities with small populations  Enforcement varies, and relies largely on "social compensation fees" to discourage extra births

85 Health Care and Education  The CCP has allowed the decentralization of health institutions, removing former political control and government funding  Increased autonomy of health facilities promotes free treatment of Chinese citizens and thereby boosts the efficacy of health care  Only a very small percentage of the Chinese elite has access to the highest quality education system Nine years of education is compulsory The rural class, which constitutes the vast majority, rarely participates in advanced schooling  Hu Jintao has mentioned a plan for more equity in public education, but no such change has been implemented

86 Sources Encyclopedia of Modern China Encyclopedia of Modern China. David Pong, ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2009. 2312 pp. 4 vols. Comparative Politics- Charles Hauss /Heather-20184-Chinese-society-intro- Introduction-contemporary-Overview- lecture-Continuity-change-Three- phases-as-Entertainment-ppt- powerpoint/

87 Sources Nivison, David. "Chinese Philosophy." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1570-1580. World Cultures. Web. 9 Nov. 2009.. "Introduction to China: Opposing Viewpoints." Opposing Viewpoints: China. Ed. David M. Haugen. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2006. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 9 Nov. 2009.. Sneh, Itai. "Tiananmen Square Protest." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 8. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 123-124. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Nov. 2009..

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