Presentation on theme: "Illinois Regional Superintendents of Schools 150 Years of Educational Leadership."— Presentation transcript:
Illinois Regional Superintendents of Schools 150 Years of Educational Leadership
Created by Dr. Marc Kiehna Former Regional Superintendent Monroe and Randolph Counties
Illinois Becomes a State 1818 Shadrack Bond Governor Pierre Menard Lt. Governor A few settlers resided around the site of Chicago. Population in the area settled by the main watercourses. Several Illinois counties had no settlers within their boundaries as late as 1840.
Kaskaskia First State Capitol As many as 7,000 residents lived and work on the island. The first territorial legislature in session on the island established a law enabling the people to form a state government. In April of 1818 the legislature passed many laws setting the boundaries and establishing methods to pay for roads and canals. A provision of the law stated the “the section numbered 16 of every township, and when such section has been sold, shall be granted to the state for the use of the inhabitants of such townships for the use of schools.” The Constitution of 1818 had no word with regard to education and no attempt was made to organize a system.
Charter Schools Private enterprises applied to the state for charters to provide education. Some of the first subscription academies were: Madison Academy in Edwardsville Belleville Academy at Belleville Washington Academy in Carlyle Provisions were made in their charters for the instruction of females and to cause poor children to be educated as soon as financial conditions made it possible.
Free Schools Act 1825 The law contained all of the conditions necessary for a free public school system. It changed the old system of rates and supplied whatever revenue was needed beyond the income from the school funds from a general tax levied upon realty and personal property and also upon persons. Few schools sprang up during the next 30 years.
Leadership Bill Defeated In 1839 a bill was introduced to create the office of county superintendent. Another bill was introduced to create the office of state superintendent Both bills were defeated.
Counties get Commissioners In 1845 the law provided for an elected school commissioner who shall be the ex officio superintendent of common schools in his county. His duties included the examination of persons desiring to teach in a common school and the granting of teaching certificates to those found competent. Teachers had to be certified for their schools to receive public funds. Textbooks were to be in English. Trustees were authorized to purchase school libraries and real estate for schoolhouses. The law also provided for an ex officio state superintendent of common schools in 1845.
The State Teachers’ Institute In 1853, the State Teachers’ Institute, the forerunner of the State Teachers’ Association, was organized. This organization was instrumental in the establishment of the state normal (teacher) schools.
Supt. Of Public Instruction In 1855, the legislature passed the bill authorizing the creation of the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. The officer was directed to report to the next legislature a bill that should provide for the education of all children of the state. The new officer was Ninian W. Edwards. Ninian W., son of Ninian Edwards, who was territorial governor for 9 years and Governor of Illinois in 1826, grew up on Kaskaskia Island and later married the sister of Mary Todd Lincoln.
County Superintendents In 1865, the law was amended to create the office of County Superintendent of Schools. Tenure of four years. Required to visit each of the schools in his county at least once every year. For such a service he was paid $3 per day. Because the amount caused a financial loss for the superintendents their compensation was raised to $5 per day in 1867.
Requirements and duties Superintendents elected by popular vote for four year terms. Any citizen possessing the ordinary qualifications of an elector may hold the office. They must take an oath and give bond and are liable to removal. They may sell school lands under certain conditions. They have the custody of all county school funds. They are the official advisers and assistants of all of the subordinate school officers and teachers of their counties, and are the agents of the State Superintendent in reaching schools. The are enjoined to form and create teachers’ institutes.
Requirements and Duties Continued They have primary jurisdiction in questions and controversies arising under the school law in districts and townships and their decisions are final unless appeal is taken to the State superintendent. They are the only authority that can examine and license teachers except the State Superintendent. Their compensation is $5 per day for services actually rendered and it is payable semi-annually from the county treasury. They also receive a three percent fee for the sale of school land and a two percent fee for all moneys distributed paid, or loaned out. They must file an annual report with the State Superintendent.
The State Course of Study Began to develop in Macon County about 1879 with John Trainer, County Superintendent of Schools. His work spread to Piatt and Champaign counties and grew into what served for a time as a course of study for those counties. At a meeting of the Central Illinois Teachers’ Association at Jacksonville in March of 1869, a committee consisting of county superintendents from Champaign, McLean, Knox, and Vermillion counties was appointed to create an elementary course of study for students in grades 1 through 8 and was for eight months during the year. The edition was published by the State Department of Education. It was used in most Illinois counties and throughout the country. The course was revised at least 4 times between 1879 and 1907. In 1907 the course was revised to include foreign language, 2 or 3 year high schools, and vocational schools.
All students to Attend H. S. In 1917, legislation was passed for all students to attend High School. The Act to Establish and Maintain a System of Free Schools outlined the procedures necessary to create and sustain high school districts. It created a: Five member elected board to set policy. Gave the board the power to set the location of the high school at a central point most convenient to a majority of the students. Ex officio board composed of the county superintendent, the county judge, and the county clerk were given the discretion to change the boundaries of any township or community high school district. To change the boundaries this board would accept a petition containing the wishes of two-thirds of the legal voters. The State Superintendent was the avenue of appeal for disgruntled citizens.
Non High School Districts The 1917 Act required that all properties not included in a township high school district, community high school district, or a district maintaining a recognized four-year high school be organized into a non-high school district for the purposes of levying a tax to pay the tuition of all eighth grade graduates residing in the non-high district. The County Superintendent of Schools was designated an ex officio member of the non-high district, which consisted of three elected members of the community. They set policy and levied taxes for the non-high district.
Mass Consolidation On June 27, 1951, legislation was passed to change the landscape of Illinois school districts. SB 363 of the 67 th General Assembly mandated that all the territory of the non- high school district of any county be annexed to some high school district in the area by June 30, 1953. If there were non- high school territories existing after this date, it became the county superintendent of school’s responsibility to dissolve the non-high district and to annex any remaining territory to one or more adjacent high school districts. These were trying times for county superintendents. Decisions had to be made that were not popular. District boundaries were drawn and petitions filed with questions for voters concerning annexation of small districts (one-room schoolhouses) into larger unit districts.
Consolidation of Offices In 1973, the 102 offices of the county superintendents in Illinois, saw their numbers reduced to 78 and became Regional Superintendents. In 1977, further consolidation of smaller counties reduced the number of offices to 57. In 1994, legislation was passed that eliminated the office of the Regional Superintendent in Cook County as of June 30, 1994. Subsequent law allowed for its reinstatement on August 7, 1995.
Consolidation of Offices Continued In 1995, the 57 Educational Service Regions were reduced to 45, and the services of the 14 Educational Service Centers were included with the other services offered by these Regional Offices of Education. In 2010, the office of the Suburban Cook ROE #14 was eliminated and its duties and responsibilities were transferred to the 3 Intermediate Service Centers in the area. In 2011, the Intermediate Service Centers in Suburban Cook County were afforded full membership status in the Illinois Association of Regional Superintendents of schools. In 2012, legislation was passed to reduce the number of Regional offices in the state from 44 to 35 by setting a minimum number of 61,000 residents in each office.