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Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War BeginsA Confederation of States Section 1 Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Describe.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War BeginsA Confederation of States Section 1 Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Describe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War BeginsA Confederation of States Section 1 Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands. List the main weaknesses of the Articles. Section 1: A Confederation of States, Objectives What form of national government did the Patriots create initially, and what events revealed that a new government was necessary?

2 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Congress encouraged the former colonies to create state constitutions. Patriots disagreed over the design of these republics, especially over how much power to give the common people. Although state constitutions varied, each provided for a republic where people voted for their representatives. Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals.

3 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States weak state governments with most of their power in a popularly elected legislature. unicameral or one house legislature with either a weak governor or none at all. a large House of Representatives with small districts so that the people had more control. Democratic Patriots like Thomas Paine wanted more power for common people. They favored: Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals.

4 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States a governor with broad powers. bicameral legislature, with two houses. an upper house or senate made up of wealthy, well- educated gentlemen who would balance a lower house elected by the common people. Conservative Patriots like John Adams feared giving power to the common people. They favored: Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals.

5 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Democratic states like Pennsylvania allowed all male taxpayers over age 21 to vote. Conservative states preserved colonial requirements of property ownership for voting. None gave the vote to women or to slaves. In time, most grew more democratic with the lower house gaining more power. There was also debate over who should vote. Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals.

6 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Most new state constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion. Previously, colonies collected taxes for religious institutions. Now, religious freedom and pluralism became the norm. The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom set the example. It allowed for religious liberty free of state influence. Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals.

7 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States This first national constitution created a loose confederation or league of states in Congress drafted the Articles under John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. Congress’s power was limited to prevent the problems experienced under Britain. The Articles of Confederation was created by the Continental Congress. Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.

8 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Congress implemented and enforced laws. Executive power was shared by committees. Each state had one vote in Congress. Minor issues were passed by a simple majority. Major issues, like declaring war, required 9 states. Amendments to the Articles required the agreement of all 13 states. With the Articles, government power was limited. Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.

9 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Congress had a limited role. There was also no federal court system. Congress could:Congress could not: Declare war or conduct foreign policy. Tax Administer relations with Indian nations. Regulate commerce between states or states and foreign nations Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.

10 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States The Articles created a method to settle and govern the Northwest Territory. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

11 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Surveyors divided the territory into a N-S and E-W grid to establish hundreds of townships. Each township was subdivided into one square mile (640 acre) squares to sell at $1 each. Many farmers couldn’t afford the $1 an acre, and some land speculators got special deals. The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a method to distribute public land. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

12 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States The Land Ordinance of 1785 grid system is still evident today. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

13 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set up a system to govern territories and create states. Congress established a territorial government and appointed a governor. Settlers were guaranteed freedom of religion, trial by jury, and rights of common law. Once there were 5,000 men, an assembly could be elected. The appointed governor retained veto power. Once there were 60,000 residents, a territory could apply for statehood. It abandoned the British model of keeping colonies permanently subordinate. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

14 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States The Northwest Ordinance: barred slavery. required a republican constitution. promised settlers basic freedoms. ignored the rights of Native Americans. resulted in five new states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

15 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands.

16 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States European nations did not take the new nation seriously. Spain forbade American trade with New Orleans. Britain denied American ships access to the British West Indies and the right to export goods to Britain on American ships. Britain kept soldiers in frontier forts located in the Northwest Territory. List the main weaknesses of the Articles.

17 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Articles of Confederation could not fund the government – therefore the Federal government was in debt small farmers also in debt –banks looked to the farmers to collect money. In MA, Boston banks began foreclosing on western frontier farmers. Shays’s Rebellion ( ) Led by Daniel Shays, Revolutionary War Veteran Example of conflict between farmer/frontier and city Proved the Articles of Confederation were too weak to hold this nation together List the main weaknesses of the Articles.

18 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Growing problems led to calls for a revision of the Articles of Confederation. The nation’s debt was mounting. The economic depression was deepening as debts, bankruptcies, and foreclosures grew. Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated the Federal government’s weakness. Foreign nations did not respect the United States. List the main weaknesses of the Articles.

19 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States Early State Governments Early National Governments All states established republics in which voters chose representatives. Most states had a bicameral legislature. Most states required property ownership for voting. Most states guaranteed religious freedom in their constitutions. Each state had 1 vote, no matter the population size. The nation was a loose confederation of states. There was no executive branch. There was no judicial branch. Congress could not levy taxes.

20 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 A Confederation of States What form of national government did the Patriots create initially, and what events revealed that a new government was necessary? After the Revolutionary War, the Patriots feared entrusting the Congress with too much power. Most authority remained with the states. But strong state governments and a weak national government led to problems. Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands. List the main weaknesses of the Articles.


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