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CSCE 431: From Models to Implementation Some material from Bruegge, Dutoit.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCE 431: From Models to Implementation Some material from Bruegge, Dutoit."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCE 431: From Models to Implementation Some material from Bruegge, Dutoit

2 Outline From Object Model to Code Mapping models to code Operations on the object model: Optimizations to address performance requirements Implementation of class model components Realization of associations Realization of operation contracts From Object Model to Persistent Data Summary CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

3 Development Activities Improve modularity and performance Transform associations into references, because programming languages do not support associations Relations to functions If the programming language does not support contracts, write code for detecting and handling contract violations (or leave as documentation) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

4 Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) Vision Object model realizes the use case, which directly maps to implementation (model-driven engineering) Maybe implementation even generated Reality Model and code out of sync Examples: A new parameter added to an operation, only added to the source code, but not to the object model Additional attributes are added to an entity object, but the data base table is not updated (as a result, the new attributes are not persistent) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

5 Object Model  Code; Issues No direct language construct for UML associations Transformed into collections of object references Most languages do not support contracts (invariants, pre and post conditions) Contracts manually transformed to error detection and handling code, asserts, etc. (or ignored) If a model changes, effecting the same change in code is a manual process CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

6 Transformations CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

7 Model Transformation Takes as input a model conforming to a meta model (for example the MOF metamodel) and produces as output another model conforming to the metamodel Model transformations are used in MDA (Model Driven Architecture) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

8 Model Transformation Example Object design model before transformation: Object design model after transformation: CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

9 Same Transformation in Code: Refactoring: Pull Up Field public class Player { private String ; //... } public class LeagueOwner { private String ; //... } public class Advertiser { private String _address; //... } public class User { private String ; } public class Player extends User { //... } public class LeagueOwner extends User { //... } public class Advertiser extends User { //... } CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

10 Refactoring Example: Pull Up Constructor Body public class User { private String ; } public class Player extends User { public Player(String ) { this. = ; } public class LeagueOwner extends User{ public LeagueOwner(String ) { this. = ; } public class Advertiser extends User{ public Advertiser(String ) { this. = ; } public class User { public User(String ) { this. = ; } public class Player extends User { public Player(String ) { super( ); } public class LeagueOwner extends User { public LeagueOwner(String ) { super( ); } public class Advertiser extends User { public Advertiser(String ) { super( ); } CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

11 Refactoring Refactorings cataloged the same was ay design patterns Many language IDEs offer powerful refactoring tools CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

12 Forward Engineering Example CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

13 More Forward Engineering Examples Forward Engineering Goal: Implementing the object design model in a programming language Mapping inheritance Mapping associations Mapping contracts to exceptions Mapping object models to tables CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

14 Reverse Engineering Example Javadoc, Doxygen, … Extract documentation from source code comments Doxygen is open source, based on Oracle Javadoc Roundtrip engineering Move between a UML view and code at will CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

15 Object Design Areas 1.Service specification Describes precisely each class interface 2.Component selection Identify off-the-shelf components and additional solution objects 3.Object model restructuring Transforms the object design model to improve its understandability and extensibility 4.Object model optimization Transforms the object design model to address performance criteria such as response time or memory utilization CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

16 Design Optimizations Design optimizations are an important part of the object design phase: The requirements analysis model is semantically correct but often too inefficient if directly implemented Optimization activities during object design: Add redundant associations to minimize access cost What are the most frequent operations? ( Sensor data lookup?) How often is the operation called? (30 times/mo, every 50 ms) As an object designer you must strike a balance between efficiency and clarity Optimizations will make your models more obscure CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

17 Object Design Optimizations (cont.) Store derived attributes Example: Define new classes to store information locally (database cache, proxy pattern) Problem with derived attributes: Derived attributes must be updated when base values change 3 ways to deal with the update problem: Explicit code: Implementer determines affected derived attributes (push) Periodic computation: Recompute derived attribute occasionally (pull) Active value: An attribute can designate set of dependent values which are automatically updated when the active value is changed (observer pattern, data trigger) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

18 Model Transformations for Efficiency - Examples Optimizing access paths Possibly include redundant access paths From “many” to “one” association through qualifications Re-position attributes Fold “uninteresting” attributes to calling class Collapse objects (turn into attributes) Delay expensive computations Cache computation results CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

19 Collapsing Objects Object design model before transformation: Object design model after transformation: Turning an object into an attribute of another object is usually done if the object does not have any interesting dynamic behavior (only get/set operations) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

20 Delaying Expensive Operations Object design model before transformation: Object design model after transformation: CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation Proxy Pattern

21 Forward Engineering: Mapping UML Model to Source Code Goal: Translate UML-Model with inheritance - want to translate it into source code Solution space: E.g. Java provides following mechanisms: Overwriting of methods (default in Java) Final classes Final methods Abstract methods Abstract classes Interfaces CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

22 Mapping Associations 1.Unidirectional one-to-one association 2.Bidirectional one-to-one association 3.Bidirectional one-to-many association 4.Bidirectional many-to-many association 5.Bidirectional qualified association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

23 Unidirectional 1:1 Association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

24 Bidirectional 1:1 Association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

25 Bidirectional 1:N Association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

26 Bidirectional N:N Association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

27 Bidirectional Qualified Association CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

28 Bidirectional Qualified Association (2) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

29 Summary: Implementing Associations Strategy for implementing associations: Be as uniform as possible Individual decision for each association Example of uniform implementation 1:1 association: Role names are treated like attributes in the classes and translate to references 1:N association: “Ordered many” : Translate to Vector “Unordered many” : Translate to Set Qualified association: Translate to Hash table CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

30 Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) MDE refers to a range of development approaches based on the use of SW modeling as a primary form of expression. Sometimes models are constructed to a certain level of detail, and then code is written by hand in a separate step. Sometimes complete models are built including executable actions. Code can be generated from the models, ranging from system skeletons to complete, deployable products. With the introduction of UML, MDE has become very popular today with a wide body of practitioners and supporting tools. More advanced types of MDE have expanded to permit industry standards which allow for consistent application and results. The continued evolution of MDE has added an increased focus on architecture and automation. MDE technologies with a greater focus on architecture and corresponding automation yield higher levels of abstraction in SW development. This abstraction promotes simpler models with a greater focus on problem space. Combined with executable semantics this elevates the total level of automation possible. OMG has developed a set of standards called model-driven architecture (MDA), building a foundation for this advanced architecture-focused approach. CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

31 MDE Historical View First tools to support MDE were Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools developed in 1980s Companies like Integrated Development Environments (IDE - StP), Higher Order Software (now Hamilton Technologies, Inc., HTI), Cadre Technologies, Bachman Information Systems, and Logicworks (BP-Win and ER-Win) were pioneers The government got involved in the modeling definitions creating the IDEF specifications. New modeling languages (Booch, Rumbaugh, Jacobson, Ganes, Sarson, Harel, Shlaer, Mellor, others) led to Unified Modeling Language (UML) Rational Rose was first dominant UML product, from Rational, now IBM CASE had same problem that current MDA/MDE tools have today: model gets out of sync with source code CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

32 Terminology Review Roundtrip Engineering Forward Engineering + reverse engineering Inventory Analysis: determine  between object model and code Together-J, Rationale,… provide tools for reverse engineering Reengineering Used in context of project management: Providing new functionality (additional customer needs) in context of new technology (technology enablers) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

33 Implementing Contract Violations Many OO languages do not have built-in support for contracts Can use their exception mechanisms for signaling and handling contract violations In Java we use the try-throw-catch mechanism Example: Assume acceptPlayer() operation of TournamentControl is invoked with a player who is already part of the Tournament In this case acceptPlayer() in TournamentControl should throw an exception of type KnownPlayer CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

34 Implementing a Contract Check each pre-condition: Check the pre-condition at beginning of method Raise an exception if the pre-condition is false Check each post-condition: Check post-condition at end of method Raise an exception if the post-condition is false. If more than one post-condition is false, raise an exception only for the first violation Check each invariant: Check invariants when checking pre- and post- conditions Deal with inheritance: Add the checking code for pre- and post-conditions into methods that can be called from the class CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

35 Mapping Contracts to Exceptions Checking code slows down your program If too slow, omit the checking code for private and protected methods If still too slow, focus on components with the longest life Omit checking code for post-conditions and invariants for all other components CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

36 Outline From Object Model to Code Mapping models to code Operations on the object model: Optimizations to address performance requirements Implementation of class model components Realization of associations Realization of operation contracts From Object Model to Persistent Data Summary CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

37 From Models to Persistent Data Random complaint from somewhere: “UML Overemphasizes programming jargon, ignores databases” However, UML models can also be used for generating a schema for a relational database Schema derivable from class diagrams Relational database only has a single entity type: table Some of UML class diagrams’ richer structure lost Tools offer automation (to both directions) CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

38 From Class Diagrams to Tables Basics of the mapping class mapped to a table class attribute mapped to a column of a table instance of a class is a row of a table 1:1 association mapped to a foreign key or two classes coalesced to one table 1:N association mapped to a foreign key N:N association mapped to a table of its own No counterpart for methods Object identity implicitly serves as a unique “key” in UML class diagrams It may be necessary to add an explicit identity attribute to a table corresponding to a class CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

39 Example: Class to Table This table might be OK w/o an ID attribute Name seldom changes OTOH, refs from other tables need to use the (relatively long) NAME Decisions on representing data must be made Constraints in the model, and eventually code, need to be updated to reflect the decisions CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

40 Why Unique ID is a Good Idea Springfield Township, Bradford County, PA Springfield Township, Bucks County, PA Springfield Township, Delaware County, PA Springfield Township, Erie County, PA Springfield Township, Fayette County, PA Springfield Township, Huntingdon County, PA Springfield Township, Mercer County, PA Springfield Township, Montgomery County, PA Springfield Township, York County, PA CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

41 Data Representation 2 char for state is okay in US What about county name (see previous slide)? Is 30 char okay for city name? Rolling Hills Estates, CA – 21 char Rancho Palos Verdes, CA – 19 char Truth or Consequences NM – 19 char Washington-on-the-Brazos, TX – 24 char Winchester-on-the-Severn, MD – 24 char Slovenska Narodna Podporna Jednota, PA – 34 char Kinney and Gourlays Improved City Plat, UT – 38 char “El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de la Porciúncula” LA – 68 char + accents Might be 1781 name of LA 40 characters is safer, but lot of wasted space Int for population? 32-bit int is plenty for humans and pets CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

42 1:N Association Is it really a 1:N association? Implemented as foreign key CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

43 Reminder: Keys Candidate KeyA set of attributes that uniquely identifies a row of a table Primary KeyOne of the candidate keys selected to be used as the key of the table Foreign KeySet of attributes that references the primary key of another table CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

44 Example: Keys CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma Problem!

45 Example: 1:N CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation Probably okay 32-bit INT marginal

46 1:1 Associations CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

47 Foreign Key Can be Placed in Either Table CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

48 Navigation Previous tables corresponded to diagram on left (Fast) navigability in both directions may require indices CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

49 1:1: Possible to Represent as One Table CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

50 N:N Associations CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation Too short w/ “International Airport” in name

51 Inheritance No construct that would correspond to inheritance in relational databases Two common approaches for mapping an inheritance association to a database schema Vertical Mapping Different tables for superclass and subclass attributes If n subclasses, n + 1 tables Horizontal Mapping Subclass tables contain base attributes No table for the base class CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

52 Example Inheritance Hierarchy CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

53 Vertical Mapping CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

54 Horizontal Mapping CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

55 Comparison Trade-off between modifiability and response time Are changes likely in the superclass? Performance requirements for queries? Vertical mapping Adding attributes to superclass easy Accessing all attributes of employee or manager requires a join Horizontal mapping Changes to superclass result in more complex schema modifications Objects not fragmented across several tables  faster queries CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

56 OODBMS, NoSQL, … Alternatives to Relational Database May offer a more direct mapping between a model and persistent data Joins not needed (nor offered) Access through pointers Navigability fixed OODBMS: Programming language and database schema use the same type definitions CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

57 Thoughts About Model-Code- DB Mappings Consistency important Codify the process, always do in the same way Use tools – object/relational mapping tools relational_mapping_softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_object- relational_mapping_software Beneficial to Avoid replicating information Edited in one space, generated to other spaces If lots of replication, information will get out of sync CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

58 Outline From Object Model to Code Mapping models to code Operations on the object model: Optimizations to address performance requirements Implementation of class model components Realization of associations Realization of operation contracts From Object Model to Persistent Data Summary CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation

59 Summary Four mapping concepts 1.Model transformations Improve the compliance of the object design model with a design goal 2.Forward engineering Consistent transformation of models to code 3.Refactoring “Preserve semantics, improve readability/modifiability” 4.Reverse engineering “Extract design from code” Model transformations and forward engineering techniques “Optimizing” within the class model Mapping associations to collections Mapping contracts to exceptions Mapping class model to storage schemas CSCE 431 From Models to Implementation


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