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**EAS 2200 Earth Systems Lab Sessions (1146 Snee Hall)**

TA: Chen Chen Office: 4144 Snee Hall Lab: Tu, Wed, 2PM - 4:25PM Office Hour: Thursday, 3PM – 5PM

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**Textbook: Lab notebook (bring it every week)**

Website: Lab Schedule: 12 indoor labs and 2 field trips Due Friday at 3PM: Mailbox on second floor or my office No Late Labs!

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**2-D representation of 3-D of Earth’s surface **

Topographic Map: 2-D representation of 3-D of Earth’s surface Contour lines show elevation eg: Fig 1 (next slide), Figure 7-B (Lab notebook) GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Fig. 1 Example of Topographic Map [1]**

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**Rules for Contour lines**

Index Contours Contour Intervals How to draw contour lines: a. have points: line the points on the same elevation b. have contour lines: interpolation; extrapolation Streams; Overhanging Cliff; Vertical Cliff; Depression Contours; Steepness GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Fig. 2 Index Contour; Contour Interval [2]**

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**Streams: V pattern; Apex of V points upstream (uphill)**

Fig. 3 Streams on topographic map [3] GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Contour Lines never cross each other except: where the overhanging cliff is present**

Fig.4 Overhanging Cliff [4] GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Contour lines merge to form a single contour line**

Fig. 5 Vertical Cliff [5] GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Depression contours: hatchure on the downhill side represent closed depressions**

Steepness: Steep slope: close contour lines; Gentle slope: far apart contour lines Fig. 6 Depression Contours [6] GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Other Stuff for Reading Map**

Relief: elevation difference between 2 points Gradient: Relief / Distance between 2 points Valley: High elevation on both sides Ridge: High elevation in the middle Top of the hill: contour lines repeat on opposite sides of a depression Side of the hill: only repeat on one side GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**When it comes to complicated maps…**

Latitude and Longitude Map Legend Scales PLS (Public Land Survey System) GPS (Global Positioning System UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator System) GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Complicated maps cont’**

Ithaca’s Location: 42°26’36”N, 76°30’0”W Latitude: 0 degree at equator; 90 N & S at poles Longitude: east or west of Prime Meridian (which runs through Greenwich, England) Quadrangle: section of Earth’s surface bounded by latitude and longitude GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Complicated maps cont’**

Scales: 1: 24,000: Ratio Scale 1/24,000: Fractional Scale One inch on the map equals one mile on the ground: Verbal Scale Bar Scale: GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Complicated maps cont’**

PLS: (United States) Public Land Survey System Principal Meridians: N – S lines Base Lines: E – W lines Township (T1N, T2N) and Range (R1W, R2W) Township (6 * 6 miles) 36 Section Section NW ¼, NE ¼, SW ¼, SE ¼. And can be further divided Go from SMALLEST to BIGGEST when write this up The North-South squares of the grid are called townships and are numbered relative to the base lines; the East-West squares of the grid are called ranges and are numbered relative to the principal meridian. GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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W What is located in the SW1/4, SW1/4, sec. 14, T2S, R3W?

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**Complicated maps cont’**

GPS: Use Satellites to define position on the Earth relative to the World Geodetic System – based on UTM UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator System): 60 N – S zones. (the surface of Earth between 80°S and 84°N latitude) Specify a position: Easting coordinates, distance from W to E, in meters Northing coordinates, distance from equator (10,000,000 meters) GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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**Topographic Profile and Vertical Exaggeration**

Topographic Profile: cross section Mark the section line with elevation information Write down marks on a sheet of paper; two ends; streams Calculate vertical exaggeration: (I prefer this one…) GEOS - the pearson custom library for geography & geology

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References

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Chapter 3 Section 1- Finding Locations on Earth

Chapter 3 Section 1- Finding Locations on Earth

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