4Chapter 12 Section 1Federalism: Constitution created a system where the federal government and state governments share powerProtecting States: States for the most part can govern themselves as they see fit and they maintain their own National GuardPowers Prohibited to the StatesArticle I Section 10Can’t declare war, issue their own money or enter into a treatyReserved Powers: 10th Amendment ensures that states have all powers not given to the federal governmentMake marriage laws, regulate education and hold electionsEach state is responsible for the safety and protection of its citizensLaw enforcement and roads/bridges
5Chapter 12 Section 1 Federal Supremacy Concurrent Powers: Powers shared by the federal and state governmentsTax and borrow moneyIf a state law conflicts with a national law- national law winsStates Right v Nationalists (goes back to Federalists/Anti-Federalists)States’ Rights- limit federal government because they believe state government knows its people bestNationalists- increase the national government to address major social and economic problemsBalancing Act
6Chapter 12 Section 1 Government Cooperation Grants-in-aid: federal government provides money to the states to help them pay for some of their programsHighways, education and welfareCooperation Among States: Constitution makes sure states cooperate with each otherArticle IV“Full Faith and Credit” ex. Drivers LicenseForm of Government: RepublicanExtradition: When a person breaks the law in one state and tries to flee into another the state has to return the criminalSharing Responsibilities: Lots of cooperation along the boarders of statesProtection and trade
7Chapter 12 Section 1 State Constitution Each State has its own constitution which is its plan of governmentEach state provides for the separation of powers: Executive, Legislative and JudicialEach constitution provides the powers and terms of various offices and method of election for state officialsEach constitution has its own Bill of RightsWorkers’ right to join unionsEstablish different types of local governmentCounties and townshipsEstablishes how the state and local governments can raise and spend money
8Chapter 12 Section 2: State legislative branch OrganizationEvery state has a bicameral (Senate and House) legislature EXCEPT for Nebraska which has a unicameral (only 49 members)State Senators: 4 year termsState House of Representatives: 2 year termsMembers must be American citizens who live in the district they represent and 18 years old.
9Chapter 12 Section 2: State legislative branch How Bills Become State LawsSAME PROCCESS as CongressGovernor (Kasich) signs final copy to become a lawLegislative DistrictsAfter the Census (every 10 years) legislatures reexamine districtsUnequal RepresentationUS Supreme Court (1960’s) established that state legislatures must be apportioned (divided) on the basis of equal population.
10Chapter 12 Section 2: state legislative branch Problems Facing StatesFUNDING: many states find it difficult to pay for education, transportation, services for the disabled and disadvantaged, protecting the environment, regulating businesses and reducing crime.Many legislators DO NOT want to raise taxes but states are getting LESS federal grant money because the federal government is in its own financial crisisQUESTION becomes CUT programs or INCREASE taxes
11Chapter 12 Section 2: State legislative branch DEBATE: Is a Lottery or Gambling a good way to raise State revenue?
12Chapter 12 Section 3 Powers and Duties of the Governor: John Kasich Governor must be an American citizen, at least 30 years old and a resident of the State for 5 yearsElected for 4 year terms can be impeached for committing crimesGovernor is responsible for carrying out the laws of the State and making the budgetGovernors in 43 states can veto specific parts of a bill: LINE-ITEM VETOGovernors can issue pardons, COMMUTE which reduces a sentence and PAROLE which releases people early from prisonGovernor appoints top officials to help with state matters like health, education, law, treasurer (taxes), auditor (reviews records), transportation etc.
14Chapter 12 Section 4: state judicial branch Organized like the federal courtsCourts for minor law violations and law suitsCourts for serious crimes and large civil casesAppealsRural (small)Justice Court: Local Court titleJustice of the peace: Judges titleHandles misdemeanorsNO juriesUrban (large)Police Courts called Magistrate Courts (traffic violations)Civil cases- one person against another or group
15Chapter 12 Section 4: state judicial branch Higher Courts: serious crimes (felonies) and large civil casesGeneral Trial CourtDefendants charged with felonies go on trial in general trial courts. Heard by a jury and judge decides penalty if guilty.Appellate CourtsPanel of judges decides a case and votes if they find the lower court did not provide a fair trial they can overturn the decisionSupreme CourtInterpret the State’s constitution and lawsReviews appeal courts decisionsFinal say
16Chapter 12 Section 4: state judicial branch Selection of JudgesSome are elected by popular vote others by the state legislature and others by the governorSome states appoint judges for life others have term limitsCan be removed by impeachmentDEBATE: If judges are elected by the people will they be more concerned with pleasing voters than they are with administering the law impartially?
18Chapter 13 section I: City governments Local governments are closest to the people but have no legal independence. They are totally dependent on the State.Most states define a municipality (city) as an incorporated place: locality within an officially organized government that provides services to residents.When residents of an area want to become a city they apply to the State Legislature for a city charterThis grants power to the local governmentDescribes the type of local government with its structure and powers
19Chapter 13 section 1: City governments Home Rule: allows citizens to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, manage their own affairs as long as they abide by state laws.RECENTLY there has been a big push for this.DEBATE: Do you think a uniform city charter should be used or this system should be used instead?
20Chapter 13 section 1: city governments 3 Basic forms of Municipal GovernmentMayor-Council FormExecutive power goes to Mayor and Legislative power goes to the Council (pass laws called ordinances). Large cities historically used this form. Voters elect the Mayor and Council.Commission FormNo separation of executive and legislative power. Separate departments govern the city. Not popular or a good form.Council-Manager FormCouncil (legislative) appoints the manager. Manager recommends a budget, oversees city departments and deals with personnel matters and reports to the Council. Very popular form today.
21Chapter 13 section 1: City government Special District: unit of government that deals with a specific function like education, water supply or transportationMetropolitan Area: Central city and its surrounding suburbsDC, Pittsburgh, ChicagoSuburbs: Communities near or around citiesGrown since the 1950’sWhite FlightUrban Re-development
22Chapter 13 section 2: County governments County is the state’s largest territorial and political subdivision. There are more than 3,000 in the nation. Most important in South and WestAll states except Connecticut and Rhode Island are divided into countiesCounties are very differentPopulation: Los Angeles County CA = 10 million residents while Loving County TX has 67 peopleLand: San Bernardino County CA has more land that Vermont and New Hampshire combinedQuantity: Texas has 254 while Hawaii has 3IN Alaska counties are known as boroughs and in Louisiana they are known as parishes
23Chapter 13 section 2: County governments County Seat: town where the courthouse is locatedA board of 3-5 elected commissioners (supervisors) governs most counties for 4 year termsActs as legislatureAdopts ordinances (laws) and budgetLevy (raise) taxesEnforce lawsSheriffsDistrict AttorneyAuditorCoroner
24Chapter 13 section 3: Towns, Townships and villages States divide into Counties and the counties are broken down into smaller unitsTown (New England): One of the oldest forms of government in US. In early town meetings citizens voted on decisions (direct democracy). Maybe do this once a year but now elect a Council that runs day to day operations.Township (Midwest): like town 6 miles by 6 miles. Perfect squares. Township committee, board of supervisors or board of trustees hold meetings and are the legislative body.Village: smallest unit of local government. Headed by a small board elected by voters. Maybe have an executive (chief burgess). Residents of a village often have to pay higher taxes to support an extra layer of government but receive better services
25The Perry Township Board of Trustees Meets in Regular Meeting format on the first and third Tuesday of every month at 7:00 PM. The meetings are held at the Township Hall located at Hilton Street NW in Massillon. Regular Meetings include reports by Department Heads, the Law Director, and the Township Administrator. The public is welcome to offer comments during the Public Speaks portion of the agenda on township related matters.
26Craig Chessler – Trustee Craig Chessler is a life-long resident of Perry Township. He is a 1976 graduate of Perry High School, a former Cadet at the United States Military Academy at West Point and a graduate with honors with a Bachelor’s Degree in economics and communications from Otterbein College. Craig earned his Jurist Doctor degree from the University of Akron School of Law in 1983. He was first elected as a Trustee in He also has served since 1985 as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney and Assistant Law Director for the City of Canton. He maintains a private law practice specializing in probate law, employment law, victim’s rights and mental illness advocacy. He has also served as a trustee of the Stark Trial Lawyers Academy and Perry-Navarre Joint Economic Development District and is currently secretary for the Stark Council of Governments. He is a strong supporter of Perry theatre and athletics. There are four lovely ladies in his life; His wife, Linda, two daughters, and Hallie, the dachshund. Craig Chessler – Trustee
27Lee Laubacher– Trustee Lee Laubacher has been a resident of Perry Township since 1962 when he began teaching at Reedurban Elementary School. He graduated from Walsh College with a BA in Education and has retired from Perry Local Schools in 1993 after 32 years of teaching.He served as a Perry Township volunteer fireman rising to the rank of Assistant District Chief of Station #1. He also owned his own ambulance service in the area.He was elected Perry Township Trustee from to 2006 and was re-elected for 4 years beginning January 2008.He has been married to his wife, Jackie for 45 years. They have 6 children and fourteen grandchildren.He has been a Board member for St. Joseph Credit Union since 1995 and is presently the President of the Board. He is also a member of Perry Rotary and the Knights of Columbus at St. Joan of Arc.Lee Laubacher– Trustee
28Fiscal Officer: Joe Schlegel As Fiscal Officer, one of my responsibilities is to maintain a budget that is fiscally responsible, and allows us to continue providing necessary services to Perry Township residents. Joe states that Perry Township has been able to have a balanced budget for all departments which is due to the credit of the Trustees and all Department Heads as they watch every dollar spent realizing this is "you" the taxpayers money. Utilizing a frugal, and well planned budgeting system in 2011, we were able to update our police cruiser fleet by replacing antiquated cruisers with the purchase of 5 new police cruisers. The purchase of 2 new fire engines allowed us to replace 2 twenty-two year old firetrucks. Utilizing state purchasing procedures ensures us we are getting the best value for our dollars!We are proud of our road improvement projects, which include the "Crescent Gardens Storm Sewer Phase I & II, & 12th Street Road Improvement Projects” which have been recently awarded funding though Ohio Public Works Commission (OPWC) We have also invested in our Parks and Recycling program. In addition to the traditional resources of revenue, Perry Township receives income from services that are provided to us through grant dollars, as well as interest earned in our bank account. In an effort to utilize our resources as responsibly as possible we implement and invest in a way that will keep adequate funds liquid while obtaining the most effective return on our money. Fiscal Officer: Joe Schlegel
30Chapter 14 section 1: HowPolicies: set of rules or guidelines followed to make decisions and carry out actions.Public Policy: concerned with actions of the government as it deals with issues that affect the entire communityNot necessarily a lawHealth care, environment, to or not to build roads/buildingsEx. MADD
31Chapter 14 section 1: How Looking towards the future Planning Commission: oversees community growthShort-term plan: 2-3 yearsHousing ConstructionLong-term plan: yearsBuilding of schoolsInfrastructure: system of roads, bridges, water and sewerPriorities: most urgent goals for the communityResources: Money, people, materials needed to accomplish goalsMaster plan: States the short and long-term goals and how the community government will carry them out
32Chapter 14 section 2: Education and social issues 62 million kids in schoolRecent History: 2001 President Bush signs the NCLB No Child Left Behind Act authorizing 26.5 Billion in federal spending on education WITH rules local schools MUST follow to get the $$$Problems: Gap between wealthy and poor school districts occurs because $$ raised for education is based on property taxes and values of property varyDebate: Should schools be allowed to put soda vending machines in to raise money?
33Chapter 14 section 2: Education and social issues Challenges to Schools and Teachers:#1 = financial, drop out rates, low test scores, crime and violence on school propertyCharter Schools: attempt to combat poor academic performance over 30 states permit. Schools receive state funding but are excused from meeting many public school regulations.Hope that increased freedom will lead to innovative teachingVouchers: Cities and States can give to parents/guardians so child(ren) can attend private schoolOnly a few cities are experimenting with this: ClevelandPrivatization: Private businesses run the schools and earn a profit when they are more efficient/improve the quality of educationMass Testing: Does it hold teachers more accountable or does it teach kids how to take tests not learn?
34Chapter 14 section 2: Education and social issues Crime and Social ProgramsCrime and PovertyMore than 2 million inmates in prison in the US one of the highest % in the worldCrime rates usually highest in large citiesPolice ForcesUrban police are the main crime fighting force in the nationCounty sheriffs and deputies (3000+) carry out law in rural areasMain job is to maintain the peaceCommunity policingWelfareTANF- Temporary Assistance for Needy Familiesmillion people on welfare by 2007 fewer than 4 million
35Chapter 14 section 3: Environmental Issues Environmentalism: protecting the environmentChanged from little state and local involvement in 1970 when Congress passed the Clean Air Act and established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Solid Waste: garbageAmerican produce 250 million tons of solid waste each yearTypically disposed in landfillsSometimes landfills have to be closed because rainwater going through has damaged the underground drinking waterIt’s getting harder to find a location to create a new landfill because citizens don’t want to live near them.Alternative is to burn waste but it releases air toxinsRecycling: Reusing old materials to make new onesConservation: preservation and protection of natural resources (lights)DEBATE: Should plastic bags be illegal?
36Perry Township Recycling Department Kenny Shreffler, Superintendent Location: Southway SW, Canton, Ohio Contact: Statistics: Within 2011, the Perry Township Recycling Station has had 30,846 vehicles pass through the gates and has collected 629.4 tons of recycled materials. Yard Waste: Yard waste is accepted year round. Drop off location for yard waste has changed to our Road Department, 1500 Jackson Ave. SW, Massillon, Ohio Same hours of operation as recycle. Accepted Materials: Soda bottles, beer bottles, juice containers, ketchup bottles, wine and liquor bottles, food containers, newspapers, magazines, chipboard, cardboard, tin cans, cans, plastic, glass, scrap metal and tires. NOT Acceptable: Mirrors, auto windshields, light bulbs, clay flower pots, laboratory glass, crystal, ceramic cups, plates, ceramic bottle tops, window glass, heat resistant ovenware, opaque/ milk glass, drinking glasses, NO DIRT and NO ROCKS.
37Chapter 14 section 3: Environmental Issues Industrial Pollution: Water pollution comes mainly from factories because they produce chemical wasteEPA regulations are difficult to enforcePollution from Individuals: Air pollution comes mainly from vehicles.Hazardous Waste: Radioactive waste from Nuclear Power Plants is the most serious form. Pesticides from farmers is also on the rise and a serious form of hazardous waste.Until 1970’s toxic waste was put in metal containers, encased with concrete and dumped into the ocean. Not allowed anymore. Land only. Love Canal NY had to be abandoned because of exposure.Grassroots Effort: begun by local citizensSierra Club, Audubon Society, Wilderness Society