Presentation on theme: "Essential Question #1: How has Territorial Expansion been Justified?"— Presentation transcript:
1Essential Question #1: How has Territorial Expansion been Justified?
2Essential Question #2: What Factors Promote Continental Expansion?
3Essential Question #4:What Responsibility does America have Towards the Inhabitants of a Newly Acquired Territory?
4What factors promote territorial expansion? Treaty of ParisGranted the United States independenceTransferred the land from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi, and from the Great Lakes south to Florida, to the AmericansDeclared that the Americans should pay any debts owed to the British
7Land Ordinance of 1785By 1785, Congress needed to set up an orderly system for settling the Northwest Territory.The ordinance called for the land to be surveyed and divided into townships by base line and range line.Congress planned to sell sections to settlers for $640 each.One section in every township was to be set aside to support public schools.It also allotted a section for purpose of religion and no more than two townships for a University.
8Northwest Ordinance of 1787 This ordinance set up a government (a governor, a secretary, and 3 judges) for the Northwest Territory and allowed the region to be divided into separate territories.Once a territory had a population of 60,000 free citizens, it could petition Congress to become a state.set up a way for new states to be admitted to the United States.Northwest territory became five states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
10What factors promote territorial expansion? The Louisiana PurchaseJefferson wanted to buy Louisiana:to expand U.S. landto appeal to Republican farmersNapoleon wanted to sell Louisiana:to leave behind the slave revolts and disease of the Western Hemisphereto get money to expand his war chest
12What factors promote territorial expansion? Significance of the Louisiana Purchaseadded all or part of 13 statesopened the interior of the continent to settlementhelped transform the U.S. into a world nationremoved the French threat
13What factors promote territorial expansion? Lewis and Clark ExpeditionThe Unknown TerritoryNeither France or U.S. knew exact sizeThe Lewis and Clark Expedition45 menHired a French fur trader and his Shushonis wife named SacagaweaMeriwether Lewis
14Adams-Onis Treaty / Florida Purchase Treaty (1819) Settled the boundary dispute between the U.S. and Spain. It also included the purchase of Florida at a cost of $5,000,000.
15Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842) Clearly drawn boundary lines were drawn between Maine & New Brunswick and also in the Great Lakes Region.
17What factors promote territorial expansion? Manifest DestinyPopular belief that the United States was destined to extend its territory to the Pacific Ocean.Northerners: Troubled by economic instability and urban crowding believed that expansion would lessen population pressures and would create new markets for U.S. products.Northern whites who opposed slavery but did not want to see freed blacks settle in the North.Southerners: Hungry for more land for cotton production also supported manifest destiny.Expansion would actually help end slavery in the Upper South by shifting the slave population westward.
19What factors promote territorial expansion? Support for westward expansionsaw manifest destiny as God’s willargued that it would stabilize the economy, lessen population pressures, and create new marketssaw expansion as a way to provide more land for cotton
20What factors promote territorial expansion? Migration WestWhite Americans sought cheaper lands or to make a new start.African Americans wanted to escape persecution in the South.Scandinavians had “America Fever.”Irish moved west after building railroads.Russian Mennonites moved after losing exemption from military.Chinese came during Gold Rush and turned to farming.
21“Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains” (1868) Albert Bierstadt Through landscape paintings such as this, many people were getting their first glimpse of thewestern United States. If you had never seen pictures of this part of the country, how do youthink you would react to this painting?
22Objectives:How did mountain men extend the fur trade and western settlement?What were the effects of U.S. settlement in Oregon Country?What difficulties did U.S. settlers face on the Oregon Trail?How did American Indians respond to white settlement in Oregon?What were some characteristics of the Mormon communities in Utah, and how did these characteristics lead to conflicts with the U.S. government?
24What factors promote territorial expansion? Difficulties on the Oregon Trailharsh weatherpoor foodAmerican Indian attacksgeneral discomfort
25Opponents of westward expansion argued that the land was already claimedargued that additional land would make the United States too big
26Mormon communities in Utah structured around canals to irrigate desert soilcooperative distribution of landcooperative building of schools, meetinghouses, and homespractice of polygamyappointment of Mormon leaders to high offices in the territorial governmentThe U.S. government disliked polygamy and the appointment of Mormon leaders to high office.
27Why did the Mexican government encourage American settlement in Texas? Objectives:How did supporters and opponents of westward expansion defend their views?Why did the Mexican government encourage American settlement in Texas?What events led to the Texas Revolution?What problems did Texas face after gaining its independence?
29What factors promote territorial expansion? Mexico encouraged American settlementto create a buffer zone against American Indian nationsto attract new citizensto prevent a possible U.S. invasion
30What factors promote territorial expansion? The Texas RevolutionMexico closed Texas to U.S. immigration and importation of slaves.Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico and established dictatorial control.Stephen F. Austin was jailed.
31What factors promote territorial expansion? Problems in Texasrelatively small populationpoor infrastructurewidespread economic problemsmany conflicts with American Indiansdiscrimination against Tejanos
32How did the annexation of Texas affect U.S.-Mexican relations? Objectives:How did the annexation of Texas affect U.S.-Mexican relations?How did the United States defeat Mexico in the Mexican War?What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?What problems confronted Mexican Americans after the Mexican War?
34What factors promote territorial expansion? U.S. annexation of Texas led to war with Mexico.General Stephen Kearny seizes control of New Mexico.Californians rise in the Bear Flag Revolt.U.S. Marines capture Monterey.General Winfield Scott lays siege to Mexico City.
35What factors promote territorial expansion? Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoMexico gave up all claims to Texas.Mexico surrendered vast territory known as the Mexican Cession.The United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and pay damages claimed by U.S. citizens against Mexico.The United States agreed to grant full citizenship to Mexicans living in the Mexican Cession.
36How did the Spanish settle California? Objectives:How did the Spanish settle California?How and why did the forty-niners migrate to California?
37What factors promote territorial expansion? Spanish settlementSpanish priests established missions.Soldiers assisted the priests.Soldiers married American Indian women.Spanish officials recruited artisans to immigrate and teach American Indians herding and carpentry.
38What factors promote territorial expansion? Forty-ninersThe forty-niners came to California by land on the California Trail and by sailing down the eastern seaboard to Central America, going overland to the Pacific Ocean, and then sailing north to San Francisco. They came because gold had been discovered at Sutter’s Mill.
39Discovery of Gold at Sutter’s Mill (January 24, 1848)
40Discovery of Gold at Sutter’s Mill (January 24, 1848) James Marshall an employee at John Sutter’s Mill discovered a few flakes of Gold that sparked the California Gold Rush.
41Gadsden Purchase (1853)Purchased from Mexico for the price of $10 million. Southern congressmen had hoped to use the land to build the 1st Transcontinental RR.Santa Anna was removed by the Mexican people after they learned of the sale of their land yet again
42What responsibility does America have towards the inhabitants of a newly acquired territory? Problems for Mexican Americansloss of landprejudiceviolence
43Effects of U.S. settlement conflicts with American Indians violence What responsibility does America have towards the inhabitants of a newly acquired territory?Effects of U.S. settlementconflicts with American Indiansviolenceinternational conflicts
46Three government land acts increased non-Indian settlement of the Great Plaines
47SECTION 2 Western Farmers Homestead Act Pacific Railway Act Morrill Actgranted more than 17 million acres of land to be sold to finance the construction of agricultural and engineering collegespermitted “any citizen or intended citizen” to have 160 acres of landgave lands to railroad companies to develop a transcontinental railroad linking the East and West coasts
48Desert of Grass - To many, the Great Plains was nothing more than a dreadful stretch of land. Lack of rain in the area meant that little would grow there, so settlers were content to pass it by. Others saw this area as a large pasture for grazing their cattle.
50It has been said that from the 1840s until the end of the 19th century, “railroad progress held the key to American prosperity.” In 1840 there were only about 3,000 miles of railroad track in the United States. By 1860 there were nearly 10 times that many miles of track, and the rush was on to reach the newly flourishing regions west of the Mississippi. The incentive to build railroads came from the federal government, which gave railroads millions of acres of public land on either side of a railroad’s right of way. Then the railroads could sell this land to raise money for construction. The amount of land awarded to a railroad company building through a territory was often twice that offered to a company laying track in a state. On the transparency, the dark purple areas along railway routes indicate the amount of land actually received by railroads.
51What results/consequences would exist due to railroad expansion west What results/consequences would exist due to railroad expansion west? Who would benefit? Who or what would be affected negatively by this form of Western Expansion and Industrialization?
52Before the Civil War, the South was largely agricultural, supplying food and particularly cotton to the nation and the world. After the war, however, Southern agriculture was turned upside down. Because many countries had increased their cotton production, Southern cotton was no longer king. Falling cotton prices and mounting planters’ debts caused many banks to fail, devastating the Southern economy. Nevertheless, these economic problems led to greater economic diversification in the South. Industry began to spring up and tobacco production took hold. By the early 20th century, Southern agriculture was starting to rebound.
53The starting line for the first Oklahoma Land Rush, April 22, 1889.