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Essential Question #1: How has Territorial Expansion been Justified?

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question #1: How has Territorial Expansion been Justified?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question #1: How has Territorial Expansion been Justified?

2 Essential Question #2: What Factors Promote Continental Expansion?

3 Essential Question #4: What Responsibility does America have Towards the Inhabitants of a Newly Acquired Territory?

4 What factors promote territorial expansion? Treaty of Paris  Granted the United States independence  Transferred the land from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi, and from the Great Lakes south to Florida, to the Americans  Declared that the Americans should pay any debts owed to the British

5 Treaty of Paris 1783

6 Post - French & Indian War (1763-1776)

7 Land Ordinance of 1785  By 1785, Congress needed to set up an orderly system for settling the Northwest Territory.  The ordinance called for the land to be surveyed and divided into townships by base line and range line.  Congress planned to sell sections to settlers for $640 each.  One section in every township was to be set aside to support public schools.  It also allotted a section for purpose of religion and no more than two townships for a University.

8 Northwest Ordinance of 1787  This ordinance set up a government (a governor, a secretary, and 3 judges) for the Northwest Territory and allowed the region to be divided into separate territories.  Once a territory had a population of 60,000 free citizens, it could petition Congress to become a state.  set up a way for new states to be admitted to the United States.  Northwest territory became five states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

9 Pinckney’s Treaty

10 What factors promote territorial expansion? The Louisiana Purchase  Jefferson wanted to buy Louisiana:  to expand U.S. land  to appeal to Republican farmers  Napoleon wanted to sell Louisiana:  to leave behind the slave revolts and disease of the Western Hemisphere  to get money to expand his war chest


12 What factors promote territorial expansion? Significance of the Louisiana Purchase  added all or part of 13 states  opened the interior of the continent to settlement  helped transform the U.S. into a world nation  removed the French threat

13 What factors promote territorial expansion? Lewis and Clark Expedition  The Unknown Territory  Neither France or U.S. knew exact size  The Lewis and Clark Expedition  45 men  Hired a French fur trader and his Shushonis wife named Sacagawea Meriwether Lewis

14 Adams-Onis Treaty / Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)  Settled the boundary dispute between the U.S. and Spain. It also included the purchase of Florida at a cost of $5,000,000.

15 Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)  Clearly drawn boundary lines were drawn between Maine & New Brunswick and also in the Great Lakes Region.

16 16 What factors promote territorial expansion? Manifest Destiny

17 What factors promote territorial expansion? Manifest Destiny  Popular belief that the United States was destined to extend its territory to the Pacific Ocean.  Northerners: Troubled by economic instability and urban crowding believed that expansion would lessen population pressures and would create new markets for U.S. products. Northern whites who opposed slavery but did not want to see freed blacks settle in the North.  Southerners: Hungry for more land for cotton production also supported manifest destiny. Expansion would actually help end slavery in the Upper South by shifting the slave population westward.


19 What factors promote territorial expansion? Support for westward expansion  saw manifest destiny as God’s will  argued that it would stabilize the economy, lessen population pressures, and create new markets  saw expansion as a way to provide more land for cotton

20 What factors promote territorial expansion? Migration West  White Americans sought cheaper lands or to make a new start.  African Americans wanted to escape persecution in the South.  Scandinavians had “America Fever.”  Irish moved west after building railroads.  Russian Mennonites moved after losing exemption from military.  Chinese came during Gold Rush and turned to farming.

21 “Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains” (1868) Albert Bierstadt Through landscape paintings such as this, many people were getting their first glimpse of the western United States. If you had never seen pictures of this part of the country, how do you think you would react to this painting?

22 Objectives:  How did mountain men extend the fur trade and western settlement?  What were the effects of U.S. settlement in Oregon Country?  What difficulties did U.S. settlers face on the Oregon Trail?  How did American Indians respond to white settlement in Oregon?  What were some characteristics of the Mormon communities in Utah, and how did these characteristics lead to conflicts with the U.S. government?


24 What factors promote territorial expansion? Difficulties on the Oregon Trail  harsh weather  poor food  American Indian attacks  general discomfort

25 Opponents of westward expansion  argued that the land was already claimed  argued that additional land would make the United States too big

26 Mormon communities in Utah  structured around canals to irrigate desert soil  cooperative distribution of land  cooperative building of schools, meetinghouses, and homes  practice of polygamy  appointment of Mormon leaders to high offices in the territorial government  The U.S. government disliked polygamy and the appointment of Mormon leaders to high office.

27 Objectives:  How did supporters and opponents of westward expansion defend their views?  Why did the Mexican government encourage American settlement in Texas?  What events led to the Texas Revolution?  What problems did Texas face after gaining its independence?


29 What factors promote territorial expansion? Mexico encouraged American settlement  to create a buffer zone against American Indian nations  to attract new citizens  to prevent a possible U.S. invasion

30 What factors promote territorial expansion? The Texas Revolution  Mexico closed Texas to U.S. immigration and importation of slaves.  Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico and established dictatorial control.  Stephen F. Austin was jailed.

31 What factors promote territorial expansion? Problems in Texas  relatively small population  poor infrastructure  widespread economic problems  many conflicts with American Indians  discrimination against Tejanos

32 Objectives:  How did the annexation of Texas affect U.S.- Mexican relations?  How did the United States defeat Mexico in the Mexican War?  What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?  What problems confronted Mexican Americans after the Mexican War?


34 What factors promote territorial expansion? U.S. annexation of Texas led to war with Mexico.  General Stephen Kearny seizes control of New Mexico.  Californians rise in the Bear Flag Revolt.  U.S. Marines capture Monterey.  General Winfield Scott lays siege to Mexico City.

35 What factors promote territorial expansion? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  Mexico gave up all claims to Texas.  Mexico surrendered vast territory known as the Mexican Cession.  The United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and pay damages claimed by U.S. citizens against Mexico.  The United States agreed to grant full citizenship to Mexicans living in the Mexican Cession.

36 Objectives:  How did the Spanish settle California?  How and why did the forty-niners migrate to California?

37 What factors promote territorial expansion? Spanish settlement  Spanish priests established missions.  Soldiers assisted the priests.  Soldiers married American Indian women.  Spanish officials recruited artisans to immigrate and teach American Indians herding and carpentry.

38 What factors promote territorial expansion? Forty-niners The forty-niners came to California by land on the California Trail and by sailing down the eastern seaboard to Central America, going overland to the Pacific Ocean, and then sailing north to San Francisco. They came because gold had been discovered at Sutter’s Mill.

39 Discovery of Gold at Sutter’s Mill (January 24, 1848)

40  James Marshall an employee at John Sutter’s Mill discovered a few flakes of Gold that sparked the California Gold Rush.

41 Gadsden Purchase (1853) Purchased from Mexico for the price of $10 million. Southern congressmen had hoped to use the land to build the 1 st Transcontinental RR. Santa Anna was removed by the Mexican people after they learned of the sale of their land yet again

42 What responsibility does America have towards the inhabitants of a newly acquired territory? Problems for Mexican Americans  loss of land  prejudice  violence

43 What responsibility does America have towards the inhabitants of a newly acquired territory? Effects of U.S. settlement  conflicts with American Indians  violence  international conflicts



46 Three government land acts increased non-Indian settlement of the Great Plaines

47 Western Farmers SECTION 2 Homestead Act Pacific Railway Act Morrill Act permitted “any citizen or intended citizen” to have 160 acres of land gave lands to railroad companies to develop a transcontinental railroad linking the East and West coasts granted more than 17 million acres of land to be sold to finance the construction of agricultural and engineering colleges

48 Desert of Grass - To many, the Great Plains was nothing more than a dreadful stretch of land. Lack of rain in the area meant that little would grow there, so settlers were content to pass it by. Others saw this area as a large pasture for grazing their cattle.


50 It has been said that from the 1840s until the end of the 19th century, “railroad progress held the key to American prosperity.” In 1840 there were only about 3,000 miles of railroad track in the United States. By 1860 there were nearly 10 times that many miles of track, and the rush was on to reach the newly flourishing regions west of the Mississippi. The incentive to build railroads came from the federal government, which gave railroads millions of acres of public land on either side of a railroad’s right of way. Then the railroads could sell this land to raise money for construction. The amount of land awarded to a railroad company building through a territory was often twice that offered to a company laying track in a state. On the transparency, the dark purple areas along railway routes indicate the amount of land actually received by railroads.

51 What results/consequences would exist due to railroad expansion west? Who would benefit? Who or what would be affected negatively by this form of Western Expansion and Industrialization?

52 Before the Civil War, the South was largely agricultural, supplying food and particularly cotton to the nation and the world. After the war, however, Southern agriculture was turned upside down. Because many countries had increased their cotton production, Southern cotton was no longer king. Falling cotton prices and mounting planters’ debts caused many banks to fail, devastating the Southern economy. Nevertheless, these economic problems led to greater economic diversification in the South. Industry began to spring up and tobacco production took hold. By the early 20th century, Southern agriculture was starting to rebound.

53 The starting line for the first Oklahoma Land Rush, April 22, 1889.


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