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Reducing System-wide Racial Disproportionality in the Prevalence of Emotionally Disabled Students Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group www.Chesapeakebayconsulting.comwww.Chesapeakebayconsulting.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Reducing System-wide Racial Disproportionality in the Prevalence of Emotionally Disabled Students Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group www.Chesapeakebayconsulting.comwww.Chesapeakebayconsulting.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reducing System-wide Racial Disproportionality in the Prevalence of Emotionally Disabled Students Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group Nichole Hobbs Bob Hull Jim Mount

2 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Overarching Goal Participants will be able to develop a comprehensive, coordinated, early intervention system to reduce racial disproportionality in the identification and placement of students classified as Emotionally Disturbed.

3 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Goals Participants will Understand: the impact of IDEA 2004 on disproportionality in special education the impact of IDEA 2004 on disproportionality in special education basic epidemiological data & concepts basic epidemiological data & concepts how needs assessments challenge assumptions about risk and protective factors how needs assessments challenge assumptions about risk and protective factors promising practices used to respond to disproportionality promising practices used to respond to disproportionality

4 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Goals Participants will Understand: impact of delay in service on special education rates impact of delay in service on special education rates impact of co-occurring conditions on identification and treatment impact of co-occurring conditions on identification and treatment evidenced based interventions that impact identification rates & reduce placement duration evidenced based interventions that impact identification rates & reduce placement duration how to plan for improving assessment and IEP team decision making how to plan for improving assessment and IEP team decision making

5 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC What is Disproportionality?

6 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC What is Disproportionality? “the extent to which membership in a given group affects the probability of being placed in a specific special education disability category.” ( Oswald, et. al )

7 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC IDEA 2004 & Racial Disproportionality Requires state and local education agencies to develop policies and procedures designed to prevent over- identification or disproportionality by race of children with disabilities. Requires state and local education agencies to develop policies and procedures designed to prevent over- identification or disproportionality by race of children with disabilities.

8 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC IDEA 2004 & Racial Disproportionality Each state must provide for the collection and examination of data to determine if significant disproportionality is occurring in the state and the local educational agencies.

9 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC IDEA 2004 & Racial Disproportionality Applies to: Applies to: overall disability rates, overall disability rates, rates by disability code rates by disability code placement in specific settings. placement in specific settings.

10 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC The New Realities Disproportionality is NOT discrimination, though discrimination may play a part. Disproportionality is NOT discrimination, though discrimination may play a part. Disproportionality is NOT cultural insensitivity and lack of diverse programming. Disproportionality is NOT cultural insensitivity and lack of diverse programming. Disproportionality is NOT un-equal numbers of blacks and whites in special education. Disproportionality is NOT un-equal numbers of blacks and whites in special education. Disproportionality is about the probability of being identified/placed in SPED based on race. Disproportionality is about the probability of being identified/placed in SPED based on race.

11 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC The New Realities Require any LEA identified as being disproportionate to reserve the maximum amount of funds under 613f (15 percent of total Special Education budget) to provide comprehensive, coordinated early intervening services to those groups that are significantly over identified. Require any LEA identified as being disproportionate to reserve the maximum amount of funds under 613f (15 percent of total Special Education budget) to provide comprehensive, coordinated early intervening services to those groups that are significantly over identified.

12 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Implications of No Child Left Behind and IDEA 2004 All Service Providers must be highly qualified and provide evidence based interventions. All Service Providers must be highly qualified and provide evidence based interventions. Do minorities/poor students have equal access to highly qualified service providers? Do minorities/poor students have equal access to highly qualified service providers? Do they have the same access to evidence based interventions? Do they have the same access to evidence based interventions?

13 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Successful Response Highly qualified staff and equal access to evidence based programs will be the foundation of any effort to address disproportionality.

14 Epidemiological View The new realities dictate a new way of viewing data. For many years the medical literature has employed an epidemiological perspective, and recently OSEP has signaled that they will be using this type of data analysis.

15 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC How is Disproportionality Determined? The Risk Ratio provides a comparative index of risk of being placed in a particular disability category and is the preferred indicator of disproportionate representation by the Office of Special Education Programs. The Risk Ratio provides a comparative index of risk of being placed in a particular disability category and is the preferred indicator of disproportionate representation by the Office of Special Education Programs. Risk Ratio is calculated by dividing the risk of one racial group by the risk of another racial group. Risk Ratio is calculated by dividing the risk of one racial group by the risk of another racial group.

16 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Disproportionality: a concern for 3 decades Disproportionality: a concern for 3 decades Black children are 2.88 times more often labeled MR and 1.92 times more often labeled ED than white children. Black children are 2.88 times more often labeled MR and 1.92 times more often labeled ED than white children. In some states, Asian/Pacific Islanders are more than twice as likely to be identified as SLD. In some states, Asian/Pacific Islanders are more than twice as likely to be identified as SLD. Native Americans labeled ED or SLD by a factor of two. Native Americans labeled ED or SLD by a factor of two. Note: these data are expressed as probabilities. Note: these data are expressed as probabilities.

17 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Are all Risk Factors Equal? What are the “Risk Factors” associated with students developing an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder? What data do you need? How is this determination made?

18 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Risk Factors from the 2001, 2002, and 2003 National Health Interview Surveys (2005)

19 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Risk Factors from the 2001, 2002, and 2003 National Health Interview Surveys (2005) ECONOMIC RISK FAMILY STATUS RISK

20 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Characteristics of ED (SEELS) Elementary Secondary Male80%76% Male80%76% African American 27%25% African American 27%25% Living in Poverty 33%30% Living in Poverty 33%30% Single Parent 34%38% Single Parent 34%38% Other family member Other family member disabled 46%46% disabled 46%46%

21 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Skill Deficits of ED Students by Parent Report (SEELS) Elementary Secondary Low Social Skills 27%33% Low Self Control Skills 29%27% Low Assertiveness 11%24% Low Cooperation Skills 24%58% Normal Cognitive Skills89%97.5%

22 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Education Experiences of ED Students (SEELS)

23 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Education Experiences of ED Students (SEELS)

24 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2 data 2004) Secondary SPED Students (ED) Secondary SPED Students (ED) Selected Characteristics Selected Characteristics 77% of ED students are male 77% of ED students are male 25% of ED students are Black (Pop rate 16%) 25% of ED students are Black (Pop rate 16%) 30% of ED students are poor (Pop rate 20%) 30% of ED students are poor (Pop rate 20%) Higher rates of one parent household, parent less than high school education Higher rates of one parent household, parent less than high school education Higher rates of ADHD and Low social skills Higher rates of ADHD and Low social skills

25 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Summary 5% of the school aged population have significant emotional/behavioral problems. Only 1% are identified as emotionally disabled. 5% of the school aged population have significant emotional/behavioral problems. Only 1% are identified as emotionally disabled. Children enter the special education system at younger ages. Children enter the special education system at younger ages. Disabled students stay in school past the mandatory age. Disabled students stay in school past the mandatory age. Identification versus availability and quality of service? What creates disproportion? Identification versus availability and quality of service? What creates disproportion?

26 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Implications of the Data Conduct a thorough needs assessment before addressing racial disproportionality. Conduct a thorough needs assessment before addressing racial disproportionality. Effective programs can cause disproportionality: early ID/treatment efforts and Drop-Out prevention programs increase enrollment. Effective programs can cause disproportionality: early ID/treatment efforts and Drop-Out prevention programs increase enrollment. Assess both Risk and Protective factors. Assess both Risk and Protective factors. Poor, Adolescent, African American Males will have highest rates of ED Poor, Adolescent, African American Males will have highest rates of ED

27 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Length of Stay Activity Ms. McGillicutty teaches the slower third grade at A Bridge Too Far Elementary. She generally has one special needs student in her class. One year, she retains Damion, a special needs student. The following year, his brother Darrien, also a special needs student enters the class. Ms. McGillicutty has doubled her rate of special education students, as measured by state and federal assessments. Imagine this going on all through Acme Township Public Schools. The following slides show the cost of retention, both for special education and for regular education students.

28 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Retention Costs GradeK Totals Basic Cohort %

29 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Retention Costs Looking at data from Acme Township Public Schools, note that a retention rate of 1% yields an overall increase in student population of 947, or nearly another cohort/grade. Those additional students will generate additional costs, with no positive outcomes. If Acme’s average cost per pupil is $8500 with a total budget of 110 million, then retention at 1% costs an additional 8 million dollars per year, not counting capital costs.

30 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Special Education 2% Rate K TotalsRatio COHORT 1000 ## # # SPED 2% ## # #

31 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Special Education 2% Rate The previous chart shows the impact of identification at a 2% rate. Note that as the age/grade increases, numbers of identified students increase. The previous chart shows the impact of identification at a 2% rate. Note that as the age/grade increases, numbers of identified students increase. The following chart assumes a 1% retention rate and a 1% identification rate to account for the overlap between the two categories. The following chart assumes a 1% retention rate and a 1% identification rate to account for the overlap between the two categories.

32 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Special Education and Retention K totals(947) COHORT 1000 ## # # SPED + 2% ## # # Note: Retention provides a minimum of 150 extra SPED students per year. For a cost analysis, go to and view more data from Acme Township Public Schoolswww.chesapeakeconsulting.com

33 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC System Responses Some systems, having been cited for disproportionality, have responded by revising policies as their sole response. We refer to that as: Some systems, having been cited for disproportionality, have responded by revising policies as their sole response. We refer to that as:

34 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC From Now On I’ll Be Good Acme Township ED Program students, 50 white & 50 black 2. LEA has overall ratio of 75% white, 25% black 3. Risk Ratio= % of ED student replaced annually. 5. Starting now, proportion of incoming students will accurately reflect population

35 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC > 3 Years of Perfection Start: 50:50………….Risk Ratio=2 >1 Y: 10 exited. 7.5:2.5 New Totals: 52.5:47.5 >2 Y: 10 exited. 7.5:2.5 New Totals: 55:45 >3 Y: 10 exited. 7.5:2.5 New Totals: 57.5:42.5 Risk Ratio=1.7 Go to for more information (look in data for Acme Townshipwww.chesapeakebayconsulting.com

36 Challenging Assumptions Using a Needs Assessment Dr. Jim Mount

37 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Needs Assessment A needs assessment is a systematic exploration of data concerning a particular issue including strengths and challenges Strengths and challenges are associated with organizational and/or individual performance

38 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC A Needs Assessment Answers the Following Questions Size the gap between current status and goals? Size the gap between current status and goals? Who must learn What? Who must learn What? What changes in Behavior & Performance can close this gap? What changes in Behavior & Performance can close this gap? Contingencies for Behavior & Performance Contingencies for Behavior & Performance Costs and benefits for each method? Costs and benefits for each method?

39 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Needs Assessment Begin with a GAP analysis Begin with a GAP analysis Use data to challenge assumptions. What is the actual performance of individual schools compared to the goals of IDEA and NCLB? Use data to challenge assumptions. What is the actual performance of individual schools compared to the goals of IDEA and NCLB? What is the distribution over grade levels for identified students? What should it be? What is the distribution over grade levels for identified students? What should it be?

40 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Needs Assessment Contributing factors? Committed Leadership, Committed Leadership, Staffing ratios, highly qualified staff Staffing ratios, highly qualified staff Availability of evidenced based interventions, Availability of evidenced based interventions, Student Characteristics, Mobility, Student Characteristics, Mobility, Policies and Procedures Policies and Procedures

41 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC What to Look For Problems as deficits: What part of the problem can we change with skill development? Problems as deficits: What part of the problem can we change with skill development? Strengths: Are we taking full advantage of our organizational strengths? Strengths: Are we taking full advantage of our organizational strengths? New Directions: Do we see new solutions or just using more of the same? Can we work smarter? New Directions: Do we see new solutions or just using more of the same? Can we work smarter?

42 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Priorities and Changes Cost Effectiveness: Which solutions generate most change? Immediacy, Expense, Impact will be outside variables. Cost Effectiveness: Which solutions generate most change? Immediacy, Expense, Impact will be outside variables. What is cost of change vs. maintenance of current effort? What is cost of change vs. maintenance of current effort? What are the legal mandates? What are the legal mandates? What are the executive pressures for change? What are the executive pressures for change? How will the family and advocacy organizations be involved? How will the family and advocacy organizations be involved?

43 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Solutions Everybody contributes data & proposals. This is a systems problem, not a Special Education problem. Everybody contributes data & proposals. This is a systems problem, not a Special Education problem. What organizational changes do we need? What organizational changes do we need? Policy and Procedure Changes Policy and Procedure Changes Strategic Planning Strategic Planning Organization Restructuring Organization Restructuring Performance Management Performance Management Accountability, Training Accountability, Training Team Building Team Building

44 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Focus on Change Identify specific opportunities and what our new performance requirements are. Identify specific opportunities and what our new performance requirements are. Who needs to change and how? Who needs to change and how? Systems Change Components: Systems Change Components: Professional Development Professional Development Technical support Technical support Supervision and focused audits Supervision and focused audits Surveillance of data Surveillance of data Feedback and adaptation of effort Feedback and adaptation of effort

45 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Summary-Checklist Perform a “gap” analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people/organization vs. the identified needs Perform a “gap” analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people/organization vs. the identified needs Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities Identify root causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities. Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities. Identify root causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities. Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities. Evaluate costs/benefits/consequences of each proposed solution. Immediacy, Expense, Impact Evaluate costs/benefits/consequences of each proposed solution. Immediacy, Expense, Impact Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions

46 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants Sometimes LEA’s implement interventions without performing a needs assessment. See if you can find some of the mistakes. Sometimes LEA’s implement interventions without performing a needs assessment. See if you can find some of the mistakes. Frederick-Arundel Regional Township Schools, a suburban school system outside Gotham, was cited for having too many African American ED students identified and placed. One Thursday afternoon the top six special education administrators and the board attorney met to determine their response.

47 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants After nearly three hours, they decided on an early intervention program, serving pre-K through 4 th. They designed a preventative program, theorizing early intervention would reduce numbers of identified ED students later. This was expensive, since the preventative program would provide services for many non-disabled students. After approval from the Superintendent and the board, 25 counselors and social workers were hired to staff school mental health centers, located in selected elementary schools. In an attempt to save money, the system did not hire any supervisors.

48 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants As a result, programs sometimes lacked focus, with some centers functioning as community mental health centers, while others treated “at risk students” and teachers’ mental health issues. There was also some drift away from evidenced-based interventions, although all the centers collected copious amounts of data, which they subsequently declined to share with administrators, citing privacy issues. After 3 years, the LEA was cited again for the same infraction. The administrators were dismissed and an outside consultant doing a needs assessment found that:

49 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants The bulk of African American ED students were entering the system in the 7 th & 8 th grades, as their parents became more successful and migrated out of Gotham into the suburbs. While the early intervention may have had some impact on their younger siblings, it did not address and had no effect on the secondary students who were responsible for the citation. When the new administrators tried to redeploy resources to serve secondary students, they met with fierce resistance. “How can you take away needed services from the youngest most vulnerable students,” asked

50 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants members of the community? The new hires, having attained tenure, did not wish to switch to working with difficult adolescents. The host schools enjoyed having their own mental health resource and were reluctant to change. The net result was that most the resources stayed in place, and other resources were diverted from programs which could not afford any cuts, including the Superintendent’s pet project, Gifted Autistic Students. This created another round of administrative downsizing in the SPED department.

51 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC By the Seat of Their Pants This all could have prevented by first completing a thorough needs assessment as background to make plans leading to better outcomes. In addition to the lack of a needs assessment, the plan suffered from lack of planning, lack of proper funding, lack of oversight, lack of interim measures, lack of focus and poor understanding about the desired outcomes. Consequences for haphazard planning in these days of tight budgets are real and full of risk for those of us in positions of responsibility.

52 Promising Practices Currently Used to Respond to Disproportionality

53 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Helpful Policies and Procedures that Reduce Disproportionality--ID Improve consistency of Annual Review and Re- evaluation meeting procedures (Manualization of Disabilities and Procedures). Improve consistency of Annual Review and Re- evaluation meeting procedures (Manualization of Disabilities and Procedures). Create data surveillance systems and team decision making audits. Create data surveillance systems and team decision making audits. Institute formal procedures to review transfers Institute formal procedures to review transfers Review/revise disability Review/revise disability Review/revise program intensity Review/revise program intensity

54 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Helpful Policies and Procedures that Reduce Disproportionality--ID Placement decisions based on present level of performance and response to intervention rather than disability code Placement decisions based on present level of performance and response to intervention rather than disability code Procedures for Differential Classification of students at a young age, Developmentally Disabled, Multiply Handicapped, Other Health Impaired or Emotionally Disturbed Procedures for Differential Classification of students at a young age, Developmentally Disabled, Multiply Handicapped, Other Health Impaired or Emotionally Disturbed Appropriate services for ancillary conditions, PTSD, Social Maladjustment, Conduct Disorder, Substance Abuse, Anger Management Appropriate services for ancillary conditions, PTSD, Social Maladjustment, Conduct Disorder, Substance Abuse, Anger Management

55 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Improved Length of Stay Fostering independence and Fading student supports for successful students Fostering independence and Fading student supports for successful students The use of “temporary” assignment of students into disability categories and special education The use of “temporary” assignment of students into disability categories and special education Establish case management & support systems to prevent grade retention, especially in secondary school Establish case management & support systems to prevent grade retention, especially in secondary school Prioritize Academic Enabling and Requisite Learning Behaviors on Every IEP Prioritize Academic Enabling and Requisite Learning Behaviors on Every IEP

56 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Improved Length of Stay Add a timeline for expected return to full-time regular education along with necessary criteria. Require educators to explain non- return to regular class

57 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Is There a Disproportionate Delay in Service?? SEELS and NLTS2 both indicate that there is a significant delay between identification of a problem and special education service, on average 3.2 years. Children having mental health issues have the longest delay between initial problem and service delivery SEELS and NLTS2 both indicate that there is a significant delay between identification of a problem and special education service, on average 3.2 years. Children having mental health issues have the longest delay between initial problem and service delivery

58 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Is There a Disproportionate Delay in Service?? The Civil Rights Project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education: The Civil Rights Project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education: “Minority Children are underserved…The lack of early intervention for minority children may exacerbate their learning and behavior problems” “Minority Children are underserved…The lack of early intervention for minority children may exacerbate their learning and behavior problems” IDEA 2004…if disproportionality is determined then school systems must provide “comprehensive early intervening services” IDEA 2004…if disproportionality is determined then school systems must provide “comprehensive early intervening services”

59 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Discussion What early intervention services provide evidence that they impact special education rates? In reference to Emotional Disturbance. What early intervention services provide evidence that they impact special education rates? In reference to Emotional Disturbance. Do reading and other academic interventions impact identification of ED students? Do reading and other academic interventions impact identification of ED students? Limited and conflicting school based data on this issue Limited and conflicting school based data on this issue What do the available data tell us? In many Maryland school systems African Americans have the lowest utilization of early intervention services and in others some of the highest rates What do the available data tell us? In many Maryland school systems African Americans have the lowest utilization of early intervention services and in others some of the highest rates

60 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Discussion Can we generalize from data generated by efforts to provide highly qualified staff and evidenced based interventions (PBIS, IC, Project Achieve, CSMHA) to what early interventions work to impact ED disproportionality? Impact of setting/environment in which the intervention occurs? Can we generalize from data generated by efforts to provide highly qualified staff and evidenced based interventions (PBIS, IC, Project Achieve, CSMHA) to what early interventions work to impact ED disproportionality? Impact of setting/environment in which the intervention occurs? Systems need to examine the age distribution curve of students with disabilities to determine impact of early intervention. Target intervention to high risk: schools, grades and demographics. Systems need to examine the age distribution curve of students with disabilities to determine impact of early intervention. Target intervention to high risk: schools, grades and demographics. How does mobility impact prevention efforts? What are the impact of population dynamics? How does mobility impact prevention efforts? What are the impact of population dynamics?

61 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Preventive Interventions Department Of Health and Human Services Data indicate that targeted short term mental health therapy is one of the six types of prevention interventions that have been determined to be effective Department Of Health and Human Services Data indicate that targeted short term mental health therapy is one of the six types of prevention interventions that have been determined to be effective The Office of the Surgeon General reports that children with serious emotional disturbances are most likely to benefit the most from mental health services The Office of the Surgeon General reports that children with serious emotional disturbances are most likely to benefit the most from mental health services

62 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Impact of Co-Occurring Conditions What are the co-occurring conditions in children who are identified as Emotionally Disabled? What are the co-occurring conditions in children who are identified as Emotionally Disabled? ADHD ADHD Conduct Disorders Conduct Disorders PTSD PTSD Alcohol/Substance Abuse Alcohol/Substance Abuse Academic Underachievement Academic Underachievement Discipline Issues Discipline Issues

63 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Co-Occurring conditions & prevalence rates? Increased referral rates at a younger age for students with multiple conditions Increased referral rates at a younger age for students with multiple conditions Increased length of stay Increased length of stay Absenteeism: unavailable for intervention and reduced effectiveness of interventions Absenteeism: unavailable for intervention and reduced effectiveness of interventions Engagement in Learning Engagement in Learning Attitude toward school Attitude toward school Incarceration (see Absenteeism) Incarceration (see Absenteeism) Suspension/Expulsion Suspension/Expulsion

64 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Recommendations Start collecting data on co-occurring conditions Start collecting data on co-occurring conditions Screen for, or assess co-occurring conditions as part of the pre-referral and special education assessment process Screen for, or assess co-occurring conditions as part of the pre-referral and special education assessment process Increased partnerships with agencies that treat these conditions within the community Increased partnerships with agencies that treat these conditions within the community Intensify efforts to involve individual and family Intensify efforts to involve individual and family Development of case management system Development of case management system Identify evidenced based treatments for these conditions and refer out or provide them as part of a comprehensive, coordinated early intervention program Identify evidenced based treatments for these conditions and refer out or provide them as part of a comprehensive, coordinated early intervention program Match the intervention to the condition that is impacting education. If child is absent due to substance abuse then the best reading and therapeutic intervention is rendered ineffective. Match the intervention to the condition that is impacting education. If child is absent due to substance abuse then the best reading and therapeutic intervention is rendered ineffective. Is this cheaper and more effective than special education? Is this cheaper and more effective than special education?

65 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Evidenced Based Interventions for co-occurring conditions Center for School Mental Health Assistance, University of Maryland; Mark Weist Center for School Mental Health Assistance, University of Maryland; Mark Weist School Mental Health Program University of California at Los Angeles; Linda Taylor & Howard Adelman School Mental Health Program University of California at Los Angeles; Linda Taylor & Howard Adelman IDEA Partnership National Association of State Directors of Special Education, JoAnne Cashman IDEA Partnership National Association of State Directors of Special Education, JoAnne Cashman Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence, Johns Hopkins; Dr. Leaf and Dr. Ialongo Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence, Johns Hopkins; Dr. Leaf and Dr. Ialongo National Child Traumatic Stress Network, multiple sites NCTSN.org National Child Traumatic Stress Network, multiple sites NCTSN.org National Institute for Mental Health, NIMH US government agency National Institute for Mental Health, NIMH US government agency Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration SAMSHA, US government agency Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration SAMSHA, US government agency Surgeon Generals Office, US government agency Surgeon Generals Office, US government agency Take evidence-based practice and adapt to your specific needs Take evidence-based practice and adapt to your specific needs

66 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Evidenced Based Interventions & Identification Rates Are we preventing ED or treating co-occurring disorders in order to prevent misidentification? Are we preventing ED or treating co-occurring disorders in order to prevent misidentification? Treatments for behavior or social disorders in order to prevent misidentification Treatments for behavior or social disorders in order to prevent misidentification Anger management Anger management Social Skills Social Skills Self Monitoring…Executive Functioning Self Monitoring…Executive Functioning Positive Behavior Supports…Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plans Positive Behavior Supports…Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plans Family involvement and culturally responsive education Family involvement and culturally responsive education

67 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Interventions & Identification Preventing educational disabilities in ED students Preventing educational disabilities in ED students Access to early, effective mental health treatments Access to early, effective mental health treatments Multi-modal treatments (NIMH MMMT as models) Multi-modal treatments (NIMH MMMT as models) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cognitive Behavior for Traumatized Students, CBITS, Sopris West) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cognitive Behavior for Traumatized Students, CBITS, Sopris West) Wrap around services and case management such as Family Preservation Services Wrap around services and case management such as Family Preservation Services Family involvement and culturally responsive services Family involvement and culturally responsive services

68 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC From Past Experience With LD, For ED Students, We Should: document all exclusionary aspects of ED not just the presence of a “condition” document all exclusionary aspects of ED not just the presence of a “condition” Focus on team decision making and not a “qualified examiner” Focus on team decision making and not a “qualified examiner” resist constant pressure applied to IEP teams to waive some or all of the criteria resist constant pressure applied to IEP teams to waive some or all of the criteria consider “Non-SPED” options to reduce placements consider “Non-SPED” options to reduce placements

69 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Current National Issues in the Identification of ED Students There is a documented history of inconsistent application of the qualifying criteria There is a documented history of inconsistent application of the qualifying criteria Having outside assessments, advocates and parental or school administrative pressure increases the probability of waiving some of the criteria Having outside assessments, advocates and parental or school administrative pressure increases the probability of waiving some of the criteria Reliance on a “qualified examiner” to determine the presence of ED Reliance on a “qualified examiner” to determine the presence of ED Acting out behavior or suspensions increases the probability of being identified as ED Acting out behavior or suspensions increases the probability of being identified as ED Parent dissatisfaction with the process is extremely high Parent dissatisfaction with the process is extremely high There is a significant delay between initial presentation of symptoms and service delivery There is a significant delay between initial presentation of symptoms and service delivery

70 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Defining ED Definition goes beyond the presence of a condition and includes eligibility criteria Definition goes beyond the presence of a condition and includes eligibility criteria Condition Condition Condition exists for six months or more Condition exists for six months or more The condition is not best described as “social maladjustment” The condition is not best described as “social maladjustment”

71 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Defining ED The condition causes a marked educational need that cannot be addressed by general education interventions The condition causes a marked educational need that cannot be addressed by general education interventions Not eligible for other overriding disability Not eligible for other overriding disability The condition is present to a marked degree The condition is present to a marked degree

72 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Improving Reliability & Validity of ED Eligibility Definition of terms Definition of terms Definition of eligibility Definition of eligibility Eligibility determination checklist Eligibility determination checklist Guidelines for referral to IEP team Guidelines for referral to IEP team Guidelines for dismissal/change of disability Guidelines for dismissal/change of disability Documentation form for ED identification Documentation form for ED identification Required Assessments Required Assessments Definition of Socially Maladjusted for R/O Definition of Socially Maladjusted for R/O

73 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Benefits of Developing a Well Defined Comprehensive Team Evaluation Process Accurate/Consistent ident. & svc. delivery Accurate/Consistent ident. & svc. delivery  Supervision and audit decision making  Scheduling of timely re-evaluations  Review incoming records  Focus on teams/schools that need training, don’t use resources uncessisarily

74 Systems Change System Change Means Changing Structures

75 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Necessary But Not Sufficient to Make Need-based Changes Provide the knowledge base to school leaders that will ensure the necessary support; Provide the knowledge base to school leaders that will ensure the necessary support; Identify what practices need to be changed; and Identify what practices need to be changed; and Plan and implement (budget for long-term) a staff development plan that includes goals and objectives related to attitude change, awareness, skill development and knowledge Plan and implement (budget for long-term) a staff development plan that includes goals and objectives related to attitude change, awareness, skill development and knowledge

76 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC System Structure for Change Develop training structures for new staff. Develop training structures for new staff. Implement a data review schedule. Implement a data review schedule. Hold school based staff responsible for maintenance of the program. Hold school based staff responsible for maintenance of the program. Shift leadership and training capability to internal leaders. Shift leadership and training capability to internal leaders.

77 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Job Embedded Professional Development Specialists must provide the system with a cadre of individuals who can: provide future training sessions provide future training sessions provide technical support and feedback that facilitates the use of new approaches provide technical support and feedback that facilitates the use of new approaches Provide staff who can support a school’s ability to bridge the gap between new ideas and practical application in unique, complex situations. Provide staff who can support a school’s ability to bridge the gap between new ideas and practical application in unique, complex situations.

78 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Summary Since 1997 IDEA has prioritized identifying and responding to disproportionality Since 1997 IDEA has prioritized identifying and responding to disproportionality National data suggest that disproportionality is getting worse not better National data suggest that disproportionality is getting worse not better Disproportionality is due to complex multiple factors including some very positive reasons, i.e. early identification efforts and effective drop out prevention programs. Disproportionality is due to complex multiple factors including some very positive reasons, i.e. early identification efforts and effective drop out prevention programs. The IDEA 2004 has renewed emphasis on responding to disproportionality, with financial consequences The IDEA 2004 has renewed emphasis on responding to disproportionality, with financial consequences

79 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC SUMMARY There are multiple examples of effective methods to respond to this issue. There are multiple examples of effective methods to respond to this issue. All effective methods begin with a needs assessment. All effective methods begin with a needs assessment. All the effective methods have at their core the ability to look at data in new ways, primarily in epidemiological perspectives. All the effective methods have at their core the ability to look at data in new ways, primarily in epidemiological perspectives.

80 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC SUMMARY One program does not produce desired change. The few successful systems have used multiple methods, such as training, changing policies and dealing with co- occurring conditions. One program does not produce desired change. The few successful systems have used multiple methods, such as training, changing policies and dealing with co- occurring conditions. Successful interventions usually relied in part on outside support, either from a private source or from a local University. Successful interventions usually relied in part on outside support, either from a private source or from a local University.

81 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC SUMMARY- Checklist Get help to avoid pitfalls Get help to make sure your efforts align with the demands of IDEA Get help to avoid unnecessary expense, and focus your efforts

82 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC SUMMARY-Checklist Change really is difficult; get help to make changes system-wide & permanent Make sure outlays for any changes produce net savings. Ideas are cheap. Planning & Implementation determine success.

83 Chesapeake Bay Consulting Group, LLC Questions?Comments?ContactChesapeakebayconsulting.com


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