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General Land Office Survey Vegetation Analysis for Effigy Mounds National Monument Harpers Ferry, IA Denise Boudreau Contractor 2736 120 th St. Colesburg,

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Presentation on theme: "General Land Office Survey Vegetation Analysis for Effigy Mounds National Monument Harpers Ferry, IA Denise Boudreau Contractor 2736 120 th St. Colesburg,"— Presentation transcript:

1 General Land Office Survey Vegetation Analysis for Effigy Mounds National Monument Harpers Ferry, IA Denise Boudreau Contractor 2736 120 th St. Colesburg, IA 52035

2 GIS 1991- 2002 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Parks and Recreation Division Obtained original notes for state parks (Wilson Library, U of M) Parks cover 300 to 34,000 acres Contractor Tiaga (Technical Associates in Geographic Analysis), Elizabeth Hobbs, John Lunde Digitized notes and plat map to 1 mile outside park statutory boundary Parks completed –Banning, Sandstone - 6,000 acres –Charles A Lindbergh, Little Falls - 300 acres –Crow Wing, Brainerd – 1200 acres –Cuyuna Country State Recreation Area, Crosby-Ironton – 5000 acres –Father Hennepin, Isle – 300 acres –Interstate, Taylors Falls – 300 acres –Lake Maria, Monticello – 1500 acres –Mille Lacs, Kathio, Onamia – 10,000 acres –St, Croix, Hinckley – 34,000 acres –Savanna Portage, McGregor – 16,000 acres –Wild River, Almelund – 7,000 acres

3 Minnesota State Parks

4  Government Land Office Survey 1870  Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory 1979

5 History of Government Land Office Mapping Iowa Anderson, P. F. GIS Research to Digitize Maps of Iowa 1832-1859 Vegetation Trygg, J. W. Trygg Composite Maps of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Iowa. 1964

6 Effigy Mounds National Monument Obtained Government Land Office notes for –Allamakee County T96N R3W –Clayton County T95N R3W T94N R3W T93N R3W –Notes are on microfilm in Des Moines –Paul Anderson has photographed all the notes for the State of Iowa

7 Who were the surveyors? Wm. Gordon May 15 – May 25, 1838 mapped T93N, R3W, 5 th Principal Meridian, Wisconsin Territory Ira B. Brunson Born in Fowler, OH 1838 appraiser for Chippewa Co., WI August 1 – 9, 1838 mapped T95N, R3W, 5 th Principal Meridian, Iowa Territory May 29 th – August 31. 1839 mapped T94N, R3W, 5 th Principal Meridian, Iowa Territory 1847 Platted St. Paul, MN 1853-54 Clerk of Court, Register of Deeds, and County Surveyor, Crawford Co, WI 1856 Surveyed the proposed site of the village of Nezeka at the site of the Effigy Mounds visitor center (Andreas Atlas 03) Guy H. Carleton Born in Bath, New Hampshire, November 1, 1819 Came to northern Michigan in 1845 to fulfill government contract for laying off township lines ($10 each) and subdivisions ($6 each) Died May 1, 1895 March 31 – November 22, 1849 mapped T96N, R3W, 5 th Principal Meridian, Iowa

8 Survey Crews Wm. Gordon, Deputy Surveyor Chain-bearers –B. D. Lee –Ira Davis –Robert S. Silcox Flag-bearer –Daniel Adams I. B. Brunson, Deputy Surveyor Chainman H.D. Lee Ian Davis Marker C. Pettibone Guy H. Carleton, Deputy Surveyor Chainmen Alexander Calhoun Edwin D. Williams David Wright William Logan Axemen Joseph Stolts James Maher Chainmen Michael Dignan Mathew Cullen Axeman Joe S. Anderson

9 Mapping Azimuth and distance of bearing trees were determined (converted from links and chains to feet) Bearing trees are general in nature Bearing trees are not a vegetation survey Bearing trees had characteristics which made them easy to relocate Bearing trees were located in pre-determined directions from the section corners Trees could be of a certain age class while young trees were ignored Trees could occur on section lines Trees were recorded at the quarter section corner

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16 Line note #38 Vegtype = Bottom Trees = White oak and elm Undergrowth = none Rating = 2

17 Line note #38 Vegtype = Bottom Trees = White oak and elm Undergrowth = none Rating = 2

18 Line note #40 Vegtype = none Trees = White oak, black oak Undergrowth = none Rating = 2 Land = Hilly

19 Line note #40 Vegtype = none Trees = White oak, black oak Undergrowth = none Rating = 2 Land = Hilly

20 Township No. 96 North Range No. 3 West 5 th Meridian Chains North between Sections 32 & 33 Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes East 40.00Set post for quarter section corner Ironwood 8 S70W 57 links BT 34 Bur Oak 8 W80E 85 links BT35 47.50 Stream 15 links wide runs NE and enter bottom (Line Note #18) 77.50 Intersect Yellow River runs S11E 80.00Section corner in River, Set witness corner 250 links North of the corner Elm 12 N78E 12 links BT 36 Elm 14 N25W 17 links BT37 (Line Note #19) Township No. 96 North Range No. 3 West 5 th Meridian Chains Random between Sections 28 & 33 Variation 9 degrees East 80.25Intersected North & South line 15 links North post East Corrected between Sections 28 & 33 Variation 9 degrees 7 minutes East 15.00Enter low wet bottom bears NE (Line Note #39) 34.50Intersect Yellow River run NE 200 links wide Gentle current (Line Note #38) 40.12 ½ Set post for quarter section corner White Oak 20 S29 ½ W 54 BT72 Elm 8 N22W 60 BT73 56.50Yellow River SE and leave bottom 80.25Section corner Land hilly, Soil 2 nd rate, White oak, Black oak (Line Note #40)

21 Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province 222L-North Central U.S. Driftless and Escarpment Section 222Lf Western Paleozoic Plateau Subsection

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23 Each line division on map represents one mile or section Presettlement Vegetation Of Effigy Mounds NM

24 PRESETTLEMENT VEGETATION OF EFFIGY MOUNDS NATIONAL MONUMENT AND SURROUNDING TOWNSHIPS Denise L. Boudreau September, 2012

25 VEGETATION COMMUNITIES Upland Prairie System Southern Dry Savanna Southern Mesic Savanna Southern Mesic Prairie Cliff/Talus System Southern Floodplain Forest Southern Wet Forest Wet Meadow System Southern Dry-Mesic Pine-Oak Woodland Mesic Hardwood Forest System Southern Dry Mesic Oak-Hickory Woodland Crop fields Giard tract Mississippi River Yellow River

26 Conclusion Plat maps and Orthophotos in digital format are of great assistance Bearing trees should be used as part of the picture, not as scientific data All plat line information should be included All plat map information should be included and can be matched to line notes Analyst need to be familiar with vegetation communities in the local area General Land Office surveys were not a scientific vegetation survey Board-based information can be obtained from the surveys Learn who the surveyors were and where they came from –Know the terms of the time –Know the vegetation names in their area i.e. jack pine in Minnesota was called pitch pine (New England). Surveyors were from New England The final product has provided a broad view of the presettlement vegetation communities.

27 General Land Office Surveys On-Line Bureau of Land Management http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/SurveySearch/http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/SurveySearch/ - Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin -

28 Almendinger, John C. 1996 Minnesota’s Bearing Tree Database, Natural Heritage Information System, Section of Ecological Services, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 26 pp. __________________2002, Crow Wing State Park Management Plan, Division of Parks and Recreation, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 124 pp. Mchab, W. Henry, David T. Cleland, Jerry A. Freeouf, James E. Keys, Jr., Gregory J. Nowacki, and Constance A. Carpenter 2005, Description of “Ecological Subregions: Sections of the Conterminous United States”U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Ecosystem Management Coordination Washington, DC 20250 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (2005). Field Guide to the Native Communities of Minnesota: The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. MNDNR St. Paul, MN.

29 -WHERE TO NEXT – Digitize additional survey records Tie this database to Military bounty lands Land patents Original settlers Pioneer cemeteries Unlimited possibilities Example Dubuque County – Concord Twp. Presettlement not mapped to date Cottage Hill Cemeteries Land patents & military warrants pre-Homestead Act of 1862

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