Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management –Concepts and Practices ( 海岸 ) ( 海洋 ) ( 管理 ) ( 觀念 ) ( 實行 ) ( 海岸 ) ( 海洋 ) ( 管理 ) ( 觀念 ) ( 實行 ) 作者 : Biliana Cicin – Sain and Robert W. Knecht 1 3. 教科書 : Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management – Concepts and Practices By Biliana Cicin – Sain and Robert W. Knecht
2 Part I Part I Chapter 1 Need Chapter 2 Definitions Part II Evolution Chapter 3 Global evolution Chapter 4 Growth in Capacity 4.Contents 書目內容 Part III A Practical Guide Chapter 5 Setting the Stage Chapter 6 various Considerations ( Institutional, Legal, Financial) Chapter 7 Informing the ICM Process: Building the Science and Information Base) Chapter 8 Formulation and approval of an ICM Program Chapter 9 Implementation, Operation, and Evaluation of ICM Programs
5.Introduction 導論 1) Intent of this book 2) Major goals 3) What is ICM ? 4) Goal of the Book 5) Scope and Content of the Book 6) Major Sources of Information 7) 1996 ICM Survey of Nations 8) The Need to Tailor ICM to Fit a Nation’s Unique Circumstance 9) A Note on Terminology 10) Structure of the Book 11) Tips on Reading the Book 3
1)Intent of this book 本書之企圖 Present an account of the concept of integrated coastal and ocean management (ICM) 說明 ICM 的概念 Illustrate how it can be accomplished by describing ways in which particular nations have implemented various aspects of it. 藉由不同國家所作不同部份, 說明如何完成的方 法 4 Account: 敘述 (give an account of …)
2)Major goals are providing: 五大主要目標 為提供 A synthesis and analysis of international prescription for ICM 綜合和分析國際對 ICM 的敘述 A presentation of the major concepts and methodologies of ICM 提出 ICM 主要概念和方法 A practical guide to the establishment, implementation, and operation of ICM programs 建立、加強和運作 ICM 計畫的實用導引 An analysis of different patterns of ICM followed in different countries 不同國家所用不同 ICM 型式的分析 Our own prescriptions for approaches that seem to be successful, base on our experience, a cross-national survey we conducted, and the scholarly literature in the field 說明一個似乎是成功的方法, 為基於作者的經驗、跨國調查和這領域的學術文獻 5
3)What is Integrated Coastal Management ? 何謂 ICM? The term implies a conscious management process that acknowledges the interrelationships among most coastal and ocean uses and the environments they potentially affect. 海岸管理就就字面看, 就是關係到 ” 海岸 ” 的管理程序. 而海岸則泛 指海岸使用者和海岸環境之間的交互關系. In a geographical sense ICM embraces upland watersheds, the shoreline and its unique landforms (beaches, dunes, wetlands), nearshore coastal and estuarine waters, and the ocean beyond to the extent it is affected by or affects the coastal area. 就地理概念來說， ICM 涵括到陸上的集水區、海岸線、獨特海岸地 形 ( 沙灘、沙丘、濕地 ) ，近岸海岸和海域，以及它會影響到的或 會影響到它的海洋 ) 6
A process ICM is a process by which rational decisions are made concerning the conservation and sustainable use of coastal and ocean resources and space. 整合性海岸管理是一個過程，藉由此觀於海岸和海洋的資源和空間 的保育和永續利用要作合理的決定。 The process is designed to overcome the fragmentation inherent in single-sector management approaches, in splits in jurisdiction among different levels of government, and in the land-water interface. 這個過程就是要設計去克服單一部門管理作法原有的分裂性，不同 政府層級間管轄的分歧，和陸地和水域的交界面。 8 What is Integrated Coastal Management ? 何謂 ICM?
ICM is grounded in the concept that the management of coastal and ocean resources and space should be as fully integrated as are the interconnected ecosystems making up the coastal and ocean realms. 整合性海岸管理所基於建立的穩固概念，為海岸和海洋的資源和 空間的管理，要如同互相連接的生態系統組成海岸和海洋領域 一樣的完全整合。 Author’s view point a) ICM does not replace traditional single-sector resources management. For example, ICM is not intended to replace coastal water quality management and fisheries management programs but to ensure that all their activities function harmoniously to achieve agreed water quality and fisheries goals. 9 What is Integrated Coastal Management ? 何謂 ICM?
b) Obviously, if a degraded coastal habitat affects the attainment of fisheries management goals, management of that habitat should be within the ambit of an integrated coastal management process. c) A book on ICM is especially needed at this time because of the recent recognition of the importance—indeed, the necessity—of employing more integrated approaches to management of the earth’s resources. Better integrated resource management is a fundamental prerequisite of sustainable development. 10 What is Integrated Coastal Management ? Author’s view point
d) Mandates for the use of more integrated management approaches were prominent in the recommendations in Agenda 21, an action program emanating from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 (also known as the Earth Summit or the Rio Conference). e) Measures for protecting marine biodiversity are called for in the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. To succeed, these measures require integrated approaches such as those embodied in the ICM concept. 11 Emanate: 產生 agenda: 議題 mandate: 授權 prominent: 突顯的 What is ICM ? Author’s view point
f) Moreover, ICM has been singled out by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as a key tool for dealing with the threat of accelerating sea-level rise in low-lying coastal areas. g) The Global Program of Action on Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities, emanating from the 1995 Washington Conference on Land-Based Activities Affecting the Marine Environment, also points out the importance of better integrated coastal management measures to control land-based sources of marine pollution. 12 What is ICM ? Author’s view point
Relent: 減緩 viable: 能養活的 facet: 方面 meteorological: 氣象 h) Unrelenting pressures on the world’s coastal areas due to ever increasing populations threaten the viability of coastal ecosystems and expose increasing numbers of people to the very real hazards of living at the water’s edge. 從沒有過的人口增加情形 Often unknowingly, coastal populations are at risk from potentially catastrophic effects of hurricanes and typhoons and the almost certain consequences of a slow but serious rise in sea level. 13 What is ICM ? Author’s view point
i) Thus, measures to mitigate the natural hazards of the coastal zone must be comprehensive in scope and they must deal with all facets of the problem — meteorological aspects, effects of storms on the shore land and its development, evacuation and post-disaster planning, insurance programs, beach protection measures, and the like. 減緩海岸地區的自然災害的方法在範圍上必須要無所不包的， 也要處理所有面向的問題， 14 What is Integrated Coastal Management ? Author’s view point Meteorological: 氣象的
4)Goals of the book 1. The primary goal of this book is to provide coastal and ocean managers with essential information about integrated coastal management so that they can put functional and effective programs in place. ( 提供必要的資料以建立具有用和有效的規劃 ) 2. The book will be relevant to coastal nations at various states of economic development, from less developed to more developed. What is offered here will be equally useful to nations with strong central governments and those with relatively undeveloped local governments as well as those with strong government capacity at three levels—national, provincial or state, and local or community. ( 和各種經濟發展階段的海岸國家有關 ) 3. The book will be useful in all types of coastal and marine settings, from those in the tropics to those in more temperate climates. ( 對各種海岸和海洋環境背景都有用 ) 15 The primary goal of this book
1. provide a clear description of the benefits of ICM to help policy makers in coastal nations decide whether and how to develop ICM programs. ( 提供 ICM 好處的清楚說明，讓決策者決定是否以及如何發展 ICM) 2. Policy makers need to know what is likely to be involved in implementing an ICM program: Will government reorganization be needed? Will new legislation or decrees be necessary? What levels of government will need to be involved? How much is the effort likely to cost? ( 決策者需要知道實施 ICM 牽連到那些政府組織重組 ? 需要新的立法和法令 ? 和那 層級的政府單位有關 ? 經費需要多少 ?) 3. Thus, the book contains information policy makers will need as they consider the initiation, implementation, and operation of an integrated coastal management program. ( 本書包含促成、實行、經營 ICM 決策者需要的資料 ) 16 A secondary goal of the book 4)Goals of the book Temperate: 溫和的 setting: 環境 ; 背景
Institutional: 制度的 program: 方案 計畫 1. the creation of a management process with the best chance of achieving the intended goals. 創造最有機會達成打算的目標的管理程序。 2. Our experience has shown that the institutional dimension often does not receive the attention it merits. 我們的經驗顯示，制度上的層面的優勢 並沒受到注意。 3. Mechanisms that coordinate and harmonize the various sectoral programs are absolutely fundamental to rational coastal management. 對各部門方案能夠協調和有和諧的機制，才是合理海岸管理的根本。 17 4)Goals of the book be most critical to a successful effort 成功的重要關鍵
Perspective: 觀點遠景 Goals of the book be most critical to a successful effort 1. 4. Similarly, no ICM program can accomplish its goals without satisfactory arrangements relating provincial and/or local governments and the central government and relating private and public actions. 若沒有相關省和地方政府、中央政府以及相關私人和大眾滿意的規劃 ( 安排 ) ICM 將無法達成目標。 2. As a rule, all levels of government, the private sector, local communities, coastal and marine stakeholders, and nongovernmental organizations all play significant roles in determining the use of coastal lands and waters. 通常，所有層級單位在決定海岸陸地和水域用途上都佔重要角色。 3. To the extent that this is the case, each of these perspectives must be constructively involved in ICM. 在這樣的範疇上， 這些看法必須是建設性地包括在整合性海岸管理中。 18
4. It is our hope that the approaches outlined here will be relevant and useful regardless of the stage of coastal management present. 我們希望，不管現在海岸管理是何階段，希望提到的作法能夠有關和有用。 5. Most nations have coastal management efforts of some sort already in place. Often, these efforts focus on a major problem in an important coastal area, such as coastal erosion or the need to protect a particularly threatened stretch of coral reef. 大部份國家多少都有海岸管理，大都注重在重要的海岸地區之主要問題，如 海岸侵蝕，或需要保護受威脅的珊瑚礁。 6. Such efforts, though probably not comprehensive in scope, can be a reasonable starting point for a broader ICM program. 這樣的努力，雖然範疇上不夠詳盡，但是對較廣範的 ICM 而言，可為合理的開 端。 19 outline: 要點 概要 relevant: 有關的 in place: 適當的 Goals of the book be most critical to a successful effort
7. We hope this book will provide the information necessary to construct a broader national effort on an existing base. 提供需要的資料，站在現有基礎上，建立更廣的全國性努力 8. Finally, it is our intent that the book be practical. It was written for individuals and organizations responsible for the initiation, implementation, and operation of integrated coastal and ocean management programs in the coastal nations of the world. 書能夠實用，本書寫給負責世界上海岸國家，促成、實行和經營整合性海岸 和海洋管理計畫的個人或單位。 9. At the same time, we hope that academics, scholars, and others interested in the field of marine policy will find the book of interest. 希望學術、學者和對海洋政策有興趣者會對本書有興趣 (be interested in) 20 Goals of the book be most critical to a successful effort
In various forms, information related to coastal management concepts and practices in a number of different national settings has been available for a number of years; see, for example, 1.Sorensen and McCreary 1990; 2.Kenchington 1990; 3.Chua and Scura 1992; and 4.Clark 1992 and 1996. 21 5)Scope and Content of the Book Setting: 環境 The books of different national settings UNCED The World Coast Conference Fashion ICM training courses This book is not the first effort to set forth a framework or a set of guidelines for undertaking ICM.
The earliest generic guidelines for coastal area management were disseminated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1987. These guidelines, like those that were to follow in the 1992 Earth Summit, contained a greater prescriptive component. They suggested various policies that coastal management programs should implement and processes that the programs should include. 22 Disseminate: 散播 prescriptive: 規定的 Prior to UNCED in 1992, much of the literature on ICM was largely descriptive, reviewing approaches undertaken in various countries to manage shorelines and coastal areas for various purposes—to minimize pollution, control coastal erosion, promote coastal tourism, and the like.
U NCED guidelines 1.The first such post-UNCED guidelines were prepared by the World Bank in 1993 in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Environment Programmers (UNEP). 2.Another set of guidelines, first prepared by the Priority Action Program of UNEP’s Mediterranean Action Plan in the early 1990s, was subsequently published by UNEP in 1995. 23 Coming out of UNCED were strong recommendations for coastal nations to develop and implement more integrated programs for managing their coastal and ocean resources, as discussed in detail in chapter 3. Not surprisingly, this mandate led to the preparation and dissemination of several additional sets of guidelines for integrated coastal management.
From the World Coast Conference in November 1993, sponsored by the Netherlands and attended by ninety nations, came a set of ICM principles and recommendations that were also prescriptive in nature. 24 A number of other efforts are currently under way to fashion ICM training courses that in effect represent extended discussions of ICM guidelines, sometimes with simulations or training exercises built in. These include the Train-Sea-Coast courses being developed by the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea, courses being offered by the International Ocean Institute, courses by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and others. Fashion: 改革, in effect: 實際上, principle: 原則, fashion: 把... 塑造成 commission: 委 員會
25 1.A synthesis and analysis of international prescription for ICM 綜合和分析國際對 ICM 的敘述 2.A presentation of the major concepts and methodologies of ICM 提出 ICM 主要概念和方法 3.A practical guide to the establishment, implementation, and operation of ICM programs 建立、加強和運作 ICM 計畫的實用導引 4.An analysis of different patterns of ICM followed in different countries 不同國家所用不同 ICM 型式的分析 5.Our own prescriptions for approaches that seem to be successful, base on our experience, a cross-national survey we conducted, and the scholarly literature in the field 說明一個似乎是成功的方法, 為基於作者的經驗、跨國調查和這領域的學術文獻 6. Our orientation as the relationship of science and management 5)Scope and Content of the Book 基於早期和現行成果，本書致力於盡可能適當擴充， 呈現以下內容
This book builds on this earlier and ongoing work and endeavors to extend it where possible and appropriate. In particular, the book presents the following: 基於早期和現行成果，本書致力於盡可能適當擴充，呈現以下內容 1.Synthesis and analysis of the international prescriptions for ICM 綜合和分析國際對 ICM 的敘述 evolving from processes associated with UNCED and the Law of the Sea Convention. Our intent is to provide an up-to-date account of thinking at the international level regarding what constitutes ICM and what are its core elements and principles. 由 UNCED 和海洋法會議延伸，企圖提供最新的關於組成 ICM 、核 心元素和原則，在國際階段的思維說明。 26 Endeavor: 力圖 constitute: 組成 以下詳述各點內容
We address central questions such as, 提出重要問題 What are the goals and functions of ICM? What triggers the need for ICM? What is being managed in ICM? Who should carry out ICM? What management methods and tools are available to coastal decision makers? 27 2.Major concepts, processes, and methodologies involved in ICM.
A practical guide for the coastal decision maker reviewing options available at each major stage of the ICM process, including problem identification and analysis and formulation, implementation, operation, and evaluation of ICM programs. We review the major options available at each of these stages, difficulties decision makers may encounter, and ways of overcoming such difficulties. 28 Major options: 可選擇的東西 3.A practical guide to the establishment, implementation, and operation of ICM programs
We describe variations in ICM practices in different nations of the world— developed and developing—and in all geographical regions. Because systematic comparative information about the ICM programs of different countries is notably unavailable, we conducted a cross- national survey of ICM practices in a sample of countries and prepared narrative accounts of various nations’ efforts to plan for and implement ICM. The survey and case studies are described more fully later in this introduction. 29 Variation: 差異 Narrative: 敘事的 notably: 明顯地 4.Analysis of various patterns of ICM followed in different countries.
Drawing on the ICM literature, the cross-national survey and case studies, and our own experiences in working on ICM in various nations, we offer our own prescriptions of what approaches seem to work best under what circumstances. 30 Draw on: 利用 circumstances: 情況 5. Presentation of our prescriptions on approaches that seem best successful.
Given our orientation as social scientists (especially in policy analysis and public administration), we pay special attention to the institutional aspects of ICM. For example, regarding the intersectoral integration inevitably needed in ICM, how can the many government agencies and other groups usually operating in coastal areas be made to work together in a coherent and harmonized fashion? 31 institutional: 制度的 coherent: 一致的 黏合在一起的 6.Our orientation as the relationship of science and management
A related question is how to determine appropriate conflict resolution strategies to address the many conflicts that typically occur among diverse ocean and coastal uses. 決定適當的解決衝突策略 Because scientific understanding is crucial for good ICM decision making, we also focus on the relationship of science and management, providing examples that illustrate how scientific information can be incorporated into the management process and discussing the obstacles often encountered in this effort. 32 Thorny: 棘手的, We address in some detail the question of intergovernmental integration, also often a thorny issue in the ICM process: what is to be the relationship between national and subnational (provincial and local) authorities, how are they to relate, and through what mechanisms?
Similarly, we stress the need to monitor parameters indicative of the performance of the ICM program or one of its parts. In our view, corrections, modifications, and improvements are difficult, if not impossible, without a carefully designed and well-functioning monitoring component—one that not only reveals how well a program is performing but also promotes the kinds of learning that can improve the performance. 33 Monitor: 監控
Our discussion relies on information from a combination of sources. F irst, we conducted an extensive review of the literature, drawn both from academic circles and from reports of national governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), on the concepts and practice of ICM; this literature forms much of the basis for our discussion of concepts and methods in the first part of the book. 35 6)Major Sources of Information
S econd, to describe the ICM experiences of a range of nations, both developing and developed, we drew on academic and in- country government and NGO sources and on our cross-national survey of ICM experts. We used these comparative data in two major ways: to illustrate the experiences of a range of nations with various aspects of ICM and to develop detailed case studies of such experiences. 36
on our experience in lecturing and working in various countries, especially Latin America, Europe, Asia, and the South Pacific; and on our experience as NGO participants in the international negotiations preceding and following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and, for author Robert W. Knecht, in the international negotiations concerning the Law of the Sea Convention. 37 Finally, of course, we drew heavily on our personal backgrounds and experience in the design and implementation of ICM programs in various countries;
38 Knecht brought another particularly relevant set of experiences to bear in the writing of this book—as initial director of the U.S. coastal zone management program charged with implementing the world’s first large-scale coastal management effort (1972—1981), he faced many of the decisions and choices that coastal decision makers around the world must address. author Robert W. Knecht
Although case studies on individual nations’ experiences with ICM may be found in the literature, it is often difficult to compare ICM processes in different countries because the studies tend to use different variables and ask different questions. Thus, we believed it would be useful to survey a selected number of nations to ascertain patterns in ICM practice. 39 7)1996 ICM Survey of Nations 1.Reason of Survey
40 The survey, conducted from February to June 1996 and reproduced in appendix 2, was sent via fax to one to five ICM experts in each of twenty-nine countries. In each country, we contacted key expert informants, individuals in the academic world or in relevant government agencies with close knowledge of the evolution and functioning of the country’s ICM program (see appendix 2 for a list of respondents). Informant: 消息 ( 或情報 ) 提供者 2.Appendix 2 (Cross-National Survey)
Responses to the survey thus reflect expert opinion rather than official government positions. We chose the following countries for our sample, as shown in table 1.1: developed countries: Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Australia, and New Zealand; middle developing countries: Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Turkey, Thailand, Malaysia., Fiji, and South Africa; developing countries and countries in transition: Ecuador, Bulgaria, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Republic of India, the Republic of the Philippines, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. the Federated States of Micronesia, and the United Republic of Tanzania. 41 3.Countries for our Sample
F F irst, we wanted examples from a range of different geographical regions. Among developed countries, we focused on those with colonial experiences (such as the United Kingdom), since a common historical pattern before worldwide decolonization beginning in the 1960s was the exportation of “metropolitan” institutions to colonies and, later, to newly independent countries. It is important to understand these historical institutional models and practices because in some cases they still influence government organization in now-independent states. 42 Exportation: 輸出 metropolitan: 大都市的 institution: 制度 4.We chose this set of countries for the following R easons.
Among middle developing countries, we sought examples from the major growing economies of Asia, Latin America, and Europe that, despite having achieved remarkable economic advances in recent years, still exhibit characteristics of underdevelopment. Among developing countries, we sought examples from different areas (Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean region, southern and eastern Asia, and the Pacific Islands) and included several small-island states because islands represent a special case in integrated coastal management. 43
F F inally, wishing to include at least one example of a country in transition from a communist economy to a free-market economy, we chose the Republic of Bulgaria, a country in which ICM efforts are ongoing as part of a World Bank project. 44 In each country chosen: (1)there had been efforts to establish and, in some cases, operate a system of ICM; (2) we could identify key expert(s) with close knowledge of the ICM effort who would be likely to respond to our survey. Our selection of countries was guided by two additional considerations.
The response rates for the survey are shown in table 1.2. The high overall response rate (78 percent) is gratifying and reflects, we think, a high degree of interest in comparing ICM practices around the world. We should note that responses were received from all countries in the survey but Barbados and South Africa. Despite repeated contacts, respondents in these countries did not return their surveys. 45 Gratify: 使滿意 5.Response
It is not a fixed approach that can be applied in a wholesale fashion to all situations, and it is not a methodology based on any one nation’s approach to coastal zone management. Furthermore, the use of zoning schemes to separate uses geographically is not necessarily an integral part of ICM, although such zoning may be recommended in certain situations to accomplish a particular purpose, as in management of a specific marine protected area. 46 8)The Need to Tailor ICM to Fit a Nation’s Unique Circumstances 1.This book shows that ICM is not a “one size fits all” concept.
Rather, as we stress throughout the book, ICM is an ongoing process designed to ensure that all decisions and activities related to or affecting a country’s coastal area are consistent with, and supportive of, agreed goals and objectives for the region and the nation. Again, the ICM process does not replace the sectoral management programs virtually all countries already operate with respect to specific coastal and ocean resources, such as fisheries. 47 2.ICM is an ongoing process
In many cases, these programs are adequately managing the resources entrusted to them. Furthermore, such programs generally are staffed by the most knowledgeable and experienced people in the field in question. However, sectoral programs involving a single resource or use often are not equipped to handle conflicts with other uses and activities or to act in a manner supportive of overarching national coastal and ocean management goals. 48 Entrust: 委託 Staff: 給... 配備職員 (+with) in question: 考慮中的 overarch: 包羅萬象的 3.the sectoral management programs
Hence, a properly functioning ICM program will consist of strong and well-run sectoral management programs operating as part of a larger system that includes institutional arrangements, processes, and procedures aimed at bringing about the necessary coordination and harmonization. Thus, ICM must be tailored to meet each nation’s unique situation. 49 Institutional: 制度的 4.the function of ICM As stated earlier, the function of ICM is to ensure that such sectoral programs come within the ambit of a process that harmonizes multiple and diverse coastal and marine activities and ensures that they all operate in a mariner consistent with the nation’s agreed coastal and marine management goals.
1. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastline and ocean 2. Distribution, richness and diversity of natural resources 3. Nature of cultural and religious traditions 4. Existence (or lack thereof) of both indigenous and colonial descendants 5. Level of economic development 6. Nature of the legal system 7. Nature of prevailing political system 8. Nature and strength of central government 50 Thereof: 關於那 indigenous: 本地的 descendant: 後裔 legal: 法律上的 Prevail: 盛行普遍 5.Virtually every country differs with respect to a number of variables:
9. Nature and function of provincial level of government 10. Nature and strength of local and community levels of government 11. Relative strengths of executive and legislative branches 12. Nature of government bureaucracy 13. Relative strengths of political parties and other interests, private and public 14. Relative roles of local communities, nongovernmental organizations, and major coastal and marine stakeholders, including indigenous peoples 15. Level of tourism development 51 Executive: 行政上的 ; bureaucracy: 官僚 Virtually every country differs with respect to a number of variables:
Of course, this list could be much longer. The point is that nations and their governments can differ in countless ways, many of them important to the sound and effective management of the coastal zone and its resources. Clearly, to be successful, any government program must be adapted to these realities. This is especially true with ICM because a program’s ultimate success depends on building positive working partnerships among the various levels of government and the sectoral programs active in the coastal zone. 52 6.any government program must be adapted to these realities
It goes without saying, therefore, that the task of designing an ICM program appropriate for a given nation must be in the hands of those with a good understanding of the nation and its realities. Since this breadth of understanding is unlikely to reside in any single individual or government agency, a team of experts with vaned backgrounds and experience is generally needed to design an ICM program to fit the unique context, needs, and realities of a particular nation. The composition of this team and the talents it brings to the task are central to the success of the resulting ICM program. 53 Vane: 瞄準板
Over the two and one-half decades of its existence, the concept of coastal management has attracted several names and corresponding acronyms. The 1972 legislation in the United States, the earliest national attempt at managing coastal zones, used the term coastal zone management ( CZM ). Early efforts in developing countries were often given the name integrated coastal area management ( ICAM ) because they were usually limited to a specific coastal area rather than the entire coastal zone. 54 9)A Note on Terminology Acronym: 首字母縮略字 CZM ICAM ICZM IMCAM ICM CZM ICAM ICZM IMCAM ICM
As the concept of coastal management gained greater recognition internationally, the phrases integrated coastal zone management ( ICZM ) and integrated coastal management ( ICM ) came into use. (The term integrated was included when it became clear that an integrated approach, rather than a single-sector approach, was essential for effective coastal management.) 55 More recently, in connection with implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the term integrated marine and coastal area management ( IMCAM ) has begun to be used as well. In our judgment, these terms all refer to the same concept—that of integrated coastal management. For simplicity and consistency, throughout this book we use the term integrated coastal management ( ICM ).
56 Part I Part I Chapter 1 Need Chapter 2 Definitions Part II Evolution Chapter 3 Global evolution Chapter 4 Growth in Capacity Contents 書目內容 Part III A Practical Guide Chapter 5 Setting the Stage Chapter 6 various Considerations ( Institutional, Legal, Financial) Chapter 7 Informing the ICM Process: Building the Science and Information Base) Chapter 8 Formulation and approval of an ICM Program Chapter 9 Implementation, Operation, and Evaluation of ICM Programs
Part I, “The Need for Integrated Coastal Management and Fundamental Concepts:’ (chapter 1):discusses the reasons why ICM is needed, focusing on the many conflicts that occur among coastal and ocean uses, (chapter 2):presents the fundamental concepts involved in integrated coastal and ocean management. Part II, “Evolution of International Prescriptions for Integrated Coastal Management:’ (chapters 3 and 4):discusses in some detail the evolution of global perspectives on ICM emanating from both the Earth Summit and the Law of the Sea Convention. 57 10)Structure of the Book This book is divided into four major parts.
Part III, “A Practical Guide to Integrated Coastal Management,” (chapter 5):lays out important considerations for the design of ICM programs, including setting of policy and management goals; (chapter 6):intergovernmental, institutional, and legal considerations; (chapter 7) :establishment of the proper scientific and technological base. (chapter 8 ):outlines the steps typically needed to formulate an ICM program and get it adopted. (Chapter 9):focuses on implementation of ICM programs and on issues faced in their operation and evaluation. 58
Part IV, “Case Comparisons and Lessons Learned,” (chapter 10) :compares case studies illustrating how twenty-two different coastal nations are addressing specific aspects of ICM (chapter 11): provides with a summary of the book and highlights of successful practices in ICM programs. Appendix 1 presents the country case studies, Appendix 2 reproduces our cross-national survey and provides a list of respondents. 59
Although we hope that readers of this book will be interested in all its parts, we suggest that the busy coastal professional interested primarily in establishing and implementing an ICM program focus especially on the following chapters: chapter 2, on definitions and concepts; chapters 5—9, on establishing, implementing, operating, and evaluating ICM programs and on institutional, legal, and informational considerations; chapter 11, the summary and conclusions. 60 11)Tips on Reading the Book Tip: 提示