2 Meeting with Dixon Both pushed upwards to get: A good team design (composition/small size/good skills mix)Commitment of resourcesTop management support in the form of Dixon launching the task forceBoth did so successfully in their own way using their own styles
3 Team LaunchBoth were uncompromising and authoritative about the ends states to be achievedBoth were equally insistent that the group determine the meansBoth established clear boundaries (e.g.., closing the door, using names, referring to the team as an entity)Both set basic norms of conduct and parametersAlthough emphasized that the team was responsible to manage itself, there were some definite do’s and don'ts (confidentiality, can’t terminate the newest employees)Both accomplished these objectives in their own way using very different styles
4 TEAM DESIGN Supportive Context Clear Direction Authority to manage the work—The MeansEnabling Structure (Membership)Small size (max of 6)Skill levelRight mix of skillsTechnical, Problem solving/decision making, InterpersonalHeterogeneous
5 Team LaunchBoth were uncompromising and authoritative about the ends states to be achievedBoth were equally insistent that the group determine the meansBoth established clear boundaries (e.g.., closing the door, using names, referring to the team as an entity)Both set basic norms of conduct and parametersAlthough emphasized that the team was responsible to manage itself, there were some definite do’s and don'ts (confidentiality, can’t terminate the newest employees)Both accomplished these objectives in their own way using very different stylesSo what should Larry/Lara try to accomplish in the first meeting?
6 STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT FormingLet concerns be airedProvide reassuranceNudge the group toward the taskAsk for commitmentStormingNormingPerformingAdjourning
7 ORTF: LESSONS LEARNED Importance of getting up front conditions right Consider team design issues slidesImportance of the initial launch by the person who created the team and doing that launch well regarding:Direction (see means vs. ends slide)Group boundariesInitial behavioral norms
8 ORTF: LESSONS LEARNED Timing is critical Continuities exist in the life of a groupTeam design and coaching behavior are interdependentTeam leader’s jobEnsure favorable conditionsUpward and lateral influence for effective designCoaching members to take full advantage of the situationConsider timingCoach the group through the stages of group developmentMaximize process gains and minimize process losses
10 Managing Conflict: High Performance Low Conflict Complacency Managed IntenseConflict
11 Definitions Conflict Negotiation Interaction of persons who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one another in achieving those goalsNegotiationA process in which two or more parties attempt to reach acceptable agreement in a situation characterized by some level of disagreement.
12 KEY STEPS Analyze Situation Analyze other party(ies) Identify your needsImportance—Is it worth it?Zero-sumStrength of positionFuture Interactions?Analyze other party(ies)Real needs, interestsStrengths/WeaknessesTheir styles/approachSelect Appropriate ApproachConflict StyleNegotiation (Integrative, Distributive)
13 Styles of Conflict Resolution AggressiveCompetition(forcing)Collaboration(Marriage Counselors/Labor mediation)(Manager exerting authority)SatisfySelf?Compromise(Union-Management)AvoidanceAccommodationPassive(Most common approach)(Acquiescent Parent)UncooperativeCooperativeSatisfy Other?(Cooperativeness)
14 INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION ConditionsGenerally bestWin-Win is possibleOpponent is willing
15 DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATING ConditionsZero-sum gameOpponent is distributiveYou have the powerRelationship not critical
16 DISTRIBUTIVE STRATEGIES Identify target and resistance pointsRealistic Goal?Start moderately high/low, make concession, get stingyView initial offers as a starting pointPersuasionLeverage Power: Facts, Experience, positionFairnessEmotionsClosedManage Perceptions/Framing
17 DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATION EXPERIENTIALLY Experience #1: Used Car Purchase/SellDecide on a “buyer” team and a “seller” teamRead only the situation and your role (2 minutes)Teams strategize and fill in the three blanks at the end of your role (5 minutes)10 minutes to negotiateUgli OrangeDecide on a “Dr. Jones” team and a “Dr. Roland” teamHave a team rep get your briefing sheet30 minutes to read and negotiate
18 KEY STEPS Analyze Situation Analyze other party(ies) Identify your needsImportance—Is it worth it?Zero-sumStrength of positionFuture Interactions?Analyze other party(ies)Real needs, interestsStrengths/WeaknessesTheir styles/approachSelect Appropriate ApproachConflict StyleNegotiation (Integrative, Distributive)
19 INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION ConditionsGenerally bestWin-Win is possibleOpponent is willingKey?Integrative Strategies?
20 INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION Integrative StrategiesOpennessTrustFlexibilityBegin PositivelyFocus on the IssueRemain RationalUse objective criteria
21 Styles of Conflict Resolution AggressiveCompetition(forcing)Collaboration(Marriage Counselors/Labor mediation)(Manager exerting authority)SatisfySelf?Compromise(Union-Management)AvoidanceAccommodationPassive(Most common approach)(Acquiescent Parent)UncooperativeCooperativeSatisfy Other?(Cooperativeness)
22 CHOOSING A STYLE Competition (forcing) Collaboration Time is an important constraintIssue is unpopular/action must be takenCommitment is not criticalCompetitive othersYou have the powerCollaborationToo important for compromiseTime pressures are minimalAll want win-winCommunication-based
23 CHOOSING A STYLE Avoidance Accommodation Compromise Issue is trivial Costs/disruptions outweigh benefitsProblem may solve itselfBased on personal differencesAccommodationIssue is more important to the other partyStockpile CreditsMinimize lossCompromiseEqual power with exclusive goalsTemporary solution to a complex issueTight time constraints
25 What is Leadership?The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.Robert House (2004)The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.Robbins & Judge (2008)
26 History of Leadership Thought Trait Theories ( -1940s)Behavioral Theories (1940s-1960s)Contingency/Situational Approaches (1960s- )ContemporaryTransformational Leadership
27 Trait Theories of Leadership "GREAT MAN" TheoriesLittle agreement on leadership traitsTraits can be developed/improvedIn isolation, narrow traits have little utility
28 Trait Theories Today CANOE Dimensions Charisma Confidence Credibility Extroversion relates most strongly to leadershipConscientiousness and openness to experience strongly related to leadershipCharismaConfidenceCredibilityIntegrityTrack RecordEmotional Intelligence
29 Emotional Intelligence Ability to detect, express, and manage emotion in oneself and others.Other(Social Competence)Self(Personal Competence)Self AwarenessSocial Awareness(Empathy)Self-ManagementRelationship ManagementRecognitionof emotionsRegulationof emotions
30 “The caring part of empathy, especially for people with whom you work, is what inspires people to stay with a leader when the going gets rough. The mere fact that someone cares is more often than not rewarded with loyalty.”James Champy, Outsmart
31 BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES: OHIO STATE STUDIES LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS:1. Initiating structure:The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates.2. Consideration:The extent to which a leader is likely to build job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and regard for their feelings.Effective leaders achieve both.
32 BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES: MICHIGAN STUDIES LEADERSHIP TYPES:1. Production Oriented Leaders:Focus on the technical or task aspects of the jobSee people as a means to goal accomplishment2. Employee Oriented Leaders:Emphasize interpersonal relationsTake a personal interest in subordinate needsAccept individual differencesEffectiveness is associated with employee oriented leadership behaviors.
33 Blake/Mouton Leadership Grid HighLow987654321Concern for Production1,9 Country Club ManagementThoughtful attention to needs ofpeople for satisfying relationshipsleads to a comfortable, friendlyorganization atmosphere &work tempo.9,9 Team ManagementWork accomplishment is fromcommitted people; interdependencethrough a “common stake” inorganization purpose leads torelationships of trust & respect.5,5 Middle of the Road ManagementAdequate organizationperformance is possible throughbalancing the necessity to get outwork with maintaining morale ofpeople at a satisfactory level.9,1 Authority-ComplianceEfficiency in operations resultsfrom arranging conditions ofwork in such a way thathuman elements interfere to aminimum degree.1,1 Impoverished ManagementExertion of minimum effortto get required work done isappropriate to sustainorganization membership.Concern for People
34 BULLY OR VICTIM? Was Hallums a bully? Or, was he a victim? Why? Have all the contingencies been taken into account?Who were his followers?Does it matter?Was Hallums a good leader or a poor leader?What can we conclude about leadership?
35 BULLY OR VICTIM? Conclusions There is no one best style of leadershipEffective leaders possess and use more than one style of leadership.Effective leaders alter their task and relationship orientation to fit the situation.A small set of employee characteristics and(e.g., ability, experience, need for independence)Environmental factors are relevant contingencies(e.g., task characteristics of autonomy and variety)Consider Leadership that gets results (pp )
36 Leadership That Gets Results CoerciveIn a crisis or genuine emergencyAuthoritativeChanges require a new vision; Clear direction is neededNot good if followers are more experienced than leaderDemocraticTo build buy-in or consensus; get input from valuable/committed employeesLeader is uncertainPace SettingGet quick results from highly skilled and self motivated professionalsAffiliativeHeal rifts in a team or motivate during stressful circumstancesCoachingHelp an employee improve performance or develop strengthsMust want to improve
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