5Two Tribes Clauseneae Citreae has 3 Subtribes Triphasiinae BalsamocitrineaeCitrinaeThe Citreae tribe consists of primitive citrus relatives and true citrus relativesCSubtribe: CitrinaeCitrus halimi: A new species from Malaya and Peninsular Thailand. Biotopica 5(2):Family: RutaceaeSubfamily:Aurantiodeae 33 generaCitrinae consists of 13 genera 1) Primitive 2) Near 3) True Citrus groups-generaPrimitive Citrus: Eg: Severinia bauxifolia (Chinese box-orange)We will consider True citrus 6 generaCITRUSFORTUNELLAPONCIRUSEREMOCITRUSCLYMENIAMICROCITRUSAll except Poncirus are evergreenOil glands in allSeeds without endospermi
6Fortunella Four species - Small trees and shrubs. Flowers later than Citrus.Freeze - hardySmall fruit‘Meiwa’ and ‘Marumi’ - round‘Nagami’ ovate4 species :F. margarita-Nagami: Cultivated in Morocco,Israel,CA and FL.F. japonica -Marumi: Cultivated in as above.Show picture from Page 110 from CVW book AND A SLIDEF. polyandra: Cultivated in Malaya PeninsulaF. hindsii: Wild in ChinaMeiwa :hybrid between margarita & japonicaBoth japonica & margarita are resistant to cold when they are dormant ...remain dormant during warm spells in winter & early spring … escape injury from spring frostsSee page of volume I. Study how Fortunella & citrus are alike and how they are different.
7Poncirus Two trifoliate spp. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’ poyandra DeciduousThorny, Cold hardy, long thornsMakes great hedges , rootstocksCold hardy:eg: Ornamental in North CarolinaTrifoliate leavesA valuable rootstock : Resistant to CTV or Xyloporosis but sensitive to blightGrown as an ornamental and hedge due to their extreme thorniness.Troyer Citrange/ Carrizo Citrange (Poncirus is a parent of these hybrids)Crosses with other citrusparadisireticulatalimonaurantiumFlying Dragon: A dwarf poncirus-mentioned in the root stock chapter.Fruit Picture: Page 122 Citrus Varieties of the World book (CVWB)
8Microcitrus Northeastern rainforest Australia Moderate-sized trees. Leaves are unifoliate dimorphicMicrocitrus australasicaResistant to burrowing nematode and phytophthoraMicro leaves, flowers, and fruit6 species .. 5 are native to Australia2 are adapted tropical rain forest…
9Clymenia Unifoliate acuminate leaves tapering into very short petiole. Branches are thornless.Style shorter than other true Citrus and stigma is larger and flattenedFruit - ovoid, thin peeled, many oil glands, many small seeds.One species: C. polyandraSee the detailed description Vol I of Citrus IndustryWhile it was originally mistaken for sweet lime, it has distinct differences1) Pulp-vesicles not on slender stalks.2) Vesicles attached to lateral and dorsal walls.3) Numerous stamens (50-100) with, slender filaments.4) Blade and petiole not articulated (perhaps not compound simple leaf).
10Eremocitrus Xerophytic native of Australia Spreading long drooping branchesLeaves unifoliate, greyish green, thick, leatherly, and lanceolate.Sunken stomata, freeze hardyIdeal xeroscape plant.Only one species in Genus E. glaucaSince it is adapted to limited water supply, it is called as a AUSTRALIAN DESERT LIMESunken Stomata See picture from the figUsed in breeding program to enhance drought resistance.Tolerant to Boran and Salt.When dormant can tolerate low temperature.See pages for description
11Citrus - Subgenus Eucitrus Vesicles - no acrid or bitter oilC. medica (Citrons)Uses - candied peel,Jewish ceremonyExocortis indicator16 species as per Swingle, only 8 species are cultivated and 162 species as per TanakaTaxonomic problems:a) Species of citrus hybridize readilyb) Citrus hybridize readily with other genera especially Fortunella & Poncirusc) Resulting hybrids are quite different from parents and seem to be “True breeding”-- stable entities due to Nucellar Embroyony.Based on flavonoids,and terpenoids and relative abundance of enzymes, only three important citrus species:1) Citron (C. medica); 2) Shaddock (C. maxima) and 3) Mandarin (C.reticulata)Sweet orange: is a hybrid between mandarin and shaddockGrapefruit: is a hybrid between sweet orange and shaddockLemon: Citron and ShaddockLime: Citron and Shaddock or MicrocitrusCitron medica: CV. Sarcodactylis. A mutant variety, carpels are not fused and resembles Budda’s hand or Fingered Citron show the page 107 resembles human hand. Cultivated in China, Japan, and India.Cv. Ethrog: SEE page Fruits lemon shaped…strongly ridged and very firm.For religious rituals: the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles.
12Citrus limon (Lemons) Commerce ‘Lisbon’ and ‘Eureka’ Dooryard Meyer (Lemon hybrid)Rough LemonRootstockItalian Lemon: is a hybrid of Citron, Indian Lime and Pumelo (unknown).Origin: Punjab regions of Pakistan, and India.Major production areas: semiarid to arid subtropical areas. Lemons are more cold sensitive than oranges, grapefruit, and mandarins, but lemons do not do well in tropical and semitropical areas.Regions with mild winters and cool summers favor the ever-flowering tendency and more favorable for fruit-setting. This explains why lemons are produced mostly in coastal locations of southern California, Italy, Spain, and Greece.Rind adheres tightly to the flesh and the rind is highly fragrant. Acid content is at its maximum before the fruit turns yellow. Acidity is higher in coastal than in desert lemons (5.5% versus %) and oil quality is generally higher in coastal than desert lemons.Everbearing and repeated flowering has been exploited in Italy and Spain, where the tree growth is manipulated by cultural practices in such way that larger than normal crops are produced when fruit is scarcest. Eg: Verdelli lemon (Green Summer lemon). Page 88Lisbon: Page 93 Common CA, Arizona, Australia, Urguay, and Argentina. More productive than Eureka. Compatible to trifoliate and citrange rootstocks. Less pronounced nipple and slightly rougher rind texture.Eureka: Page 89-- CA, Australia, S.Africa, and Argentina’s production. Less vigrous, fewer thorns. Shorter life span. Page 89.Meyor Lemon: ornamentale, hybrid betn. Lemon and Sweet Orange.Rough Lemon: Rootstock in dessert areas of CA.Ponderosa Lemon: Hybrid betn. Lemon and Citron. Dooryard ornamental in CA and FL.
13Lemon Hybrids Lemonage (lemon x sweet orange) Lemonime (lemon x lime) Lemandrin (lemon x mandarin)Eremolemon (Eremocitrus x lemon) - Australian Desert Lemon
14Citrus aurantifolia (Limes) ‘Key’ or ‘Mexican’ limes‘Tahiti’ or ‘Persian’ limes some are triploids and seedlessC. macrophylla (lime-like fruit)Rootstock in CaliforniaLemonimes (lime x lemon)Limequats (lime x kumquat)1) Acid Limes ( C. aurantifolia): West Indian Lime, Mexican and Key Lime. Small and seedy, Grown only under extremely hot climate free from frostMexico, Brazil, Egypt, and India but not known Europe.West Indian Lime- Page 99 harvested when green.Persian Lime: C. latifolia. Seedless Page 98. Introduced into USA through SanFrancisco from Tahiti in1850 and Not grown inTahiti or Persia (Iran).In Florida, Tahiti Lime is propagated as as marcots or air layers and this lime is grown in Dade County, where freezes are rarely experienced.Seedlings used to produce trees ----because of high degree of polyembroyony.Acid 7.7 % and sugar 0.3 %.Sweet Lime: C. limettiodes : See page DEVOID OF ACIDITY ----SWEET LIME. Indian Sweet lime.ACIDITY LESS THAN 0.1 %. Produced commercially in Portugal, India, Arabic countries, and Latin America.
15(Citrus latifolia Tanaka) Tahiti LimePersian LimeBearss Lime(Citrus latifolia Tanaka)Not grown either in Tahiti or Persian (Iran)Seedless and marketed when still dark green
16C. aurantium - Sour Orange ‘Seville’ in Southern EuropeOrange marmalade‘Bouquet’ & ‘Bergamot’- ItalyEssential oilMany forms like ‘Bittersweet’Rootstock - High quality fruit.Common bitter orange widely used as a rootstock and grown in Spain.Show the Seville sour orange fruit from page 115.Show Citrus bergamia species plant from slide group and fruit from page 116 and explain for its disticively perfumed rind oil.Bergamot oil is used in tea and perfume.Most widely used rootstock in the world. However, susceptibility of sweet orange on sour orange to CTV has greatly decreased its use for new plantings in Australia, Argentina, Brazil, and California, Spain, S.Africa, and FL.Most tolerant to Salt, and performs well on Calcarious soils but does not yield well on sand y soil.LRGV common rootstock.1. Swingle would include Tanaka’s C. taiwanica in this species. It was originally not susceptible to tristeza, however, recent evidence suggests that it may be susceptible to some strains in California.2. C.aurantium has been hybridzied with trifoliate orange to from Citradias.The USDA has a citradia that is reportedly edible and extremely cold hardy.
18Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) There are four classes: Common round orangeNavelsPigmented orangesAcidless or sugar oranges
19C. sinensis - Sweet Orange Round oranges‘Valencia’ -Worlds most imp.‘Parson Brown’, ‘Hamlin’, ‘Pineapple’ - US‘Shamouti’ - Israel‘Cadenera’ - Spain‘Pera’ - BrazilSweet orange are composed of four groups:1. Normal fruits- Hamlin, Pera, and Valencia2. Abnormal fruits or Navel fruit- “Washington Navel”3. Pigmented oranges- Sanguinello, Maltaise, Torocco.4. Acidless or Sugar orange: Succari, MosambiSweet orange… most extensively grown of the citrus species.Origin in China: Sinensis means CITRUS OF CHINA.Show the slide- Valencia- from page 23 and explain effect of subtropical and tropical (Cuba). Production in Argentina, Australia, CA, FL, Morocco, S. Africa, Uruguay , Brazil, and Israel.. Valencia orange fruit store well on the tree.. So both crops may be present throughout simmer months in young grooves.Problems with Valencia: 1) Has tight peel.. Messy to peel. FL- Juice and CA- Fresh market. 2) Alternate bearing 3) Rind Crease: “ ON” year in coastal areas. .. Can be reduced by KNO3 foliar spray at 40 lbs/100gal and gal/acre. EXPENSIVE 4) Regreening: Regreening starts at stem end. A) amplified by warm weather b) fruit stored on tree c) mainly a cosmetic problem d) degreening with ethylene.. Mention problems. 5) small sizes during “ ON” yeas” 6) granulation: Juice vesicles harden & become nearly colorless. Vesicles loose sugar, loose acid, become gelatenous.HAMLIN: Chance seedling in FL. Slide 1: Early maturing due low acid, size is good in hot and humid semitropics, FL. Size is too small in arid and subtropics. Major variety in FL but mixed with other juice because of poor flavor and color. PARSON BROWN: Slide 2. Seediness and fruit size problem. PINEAPPLE: SLIDE 3. Mid season variety in FL seed.ft. High juice content,good color and flavor. In FL: Harvest starts with Hamlin, then Pineapple and Valencia.Shamouti: Page 21- best quality in Coastal belt of Israel. Develop delayed bitterness like navels.Cadenera: No picture: Seedless, Spain, Morroco, Algeria.Pera: page 20: Frt. Smaller than Valencia. Good for juice industry. Uneven flowering
20C. sinensis - Navel Oranges Secondary fruit - easy IDFresh fruit - Gift packsLower acid thus sweeter tasteLimonin in juice can be removedEnvironmental stressesBest quality in cooler climatesSecond most important in the world. Secondary fruit shown in page 11 picture.Needs high summer to develop good fruit quality. Needs diurnal temp fluctuations for good color. California is a ideal place to grow. Poor processing fruit:1) Relatively low juice content2) Bitter compound (LIMONIN).3) Taste threshold is 4-5 ppm. Frshly extracted juice is not bitter.. Becomes bitter within 24 hrs. Explain later when covering phytochemicals.Late season navels are suitable for juice market. SEEDLESS:a) functional pollen lacking.b) Viable ovules are rare.Fruit with crisp texture. Peels easily.Segments separate easily.An excellent dessert fruit.Susceptible to enviornmental stresses.US, Spain, Australia, Morocco, Algeria
25California Navel Oranges ‘Washington’ most widely grownOld line replaced by nucellars‘Atwood’, ‘Fisher’, ‘Newhall’ are earliest navels‘Lane Late’ - late maturing, fruit hold well on tree.Show picture from page 15.Washington Navel orange is the best known navel orange.Navel originated by mutation in Bahia, Brazil and arrived in CA by two ways.1) English orangeries via Australia2) Received by USDA in 1870, propagated in Wash DC. (glasshouse)… sent to CA and FL 3 years later.Trees planted in Riverside by L.C. Tibbets resulted in Washington. He planted 3 door yard trees. One died.In 1903 one of the two surviving trees was moved to Mission Inn.. It died. The other was moved from Tibbets place to it s present location (Magnolia and Arlington).Skaggs Bonaza: A patented variety. Early maturing variety. Problem: Galls on trunk.. Reduced vigor is presumed to be assoiciated with galls.Lane Late: Low limoni content. Budsport of Washington navel near the property of Lane Curlwaa, Australia. Australia possible to leave fruit on tree until April but in CA regreens late spring and Summer.
27Spanish Navels‘Navelina’ sport of ‘Washington’ at Riverside, CAEarly season, smaller tree, and holds well on tree.‘Navelate’ sort of ‘Washington’ late maturing - vigorous tree.Navelina: Origin in California.Early maturing than Washington navel.Navelate: Spain. Concealed navel.Erratic performer even in Spain.
28Texas Navels ‘Washington’ - most widely planted navel in world ‘Marrs’ - limb sport of ‘Washington’ lacks distinct secondary fruit.Early maturing, low acid.Lower in limonin.‘Marrs’- limb sport on a navel tree on O.E. Marrs’ property at Donna, TX 1927.Reaches legal maturity early because of low acidity. Flavor improves, if left on the tree until November.
29Florida Navels‘Summerfield’ early maturing - adapted to humid climate.Nucellar selection - F most widely used in new plantings.
30Brazilian Navels ‘Baianinha’ - ‘Bahia’ limb sport Less vigorous and smaller secondary fruit, thusLess prone to fruit dropAdapted to hot, arid climate
31Australian Navels ‘Leng’ major navel orange ‘Washington’ sport - 1934 Small size, thinner peel.‘Lane Late’ - late season but subject to regreening and granulation.
32South African Navels South Africa ‘Palmer’ nucellar seedling of ‘Washington’ sVigorous, productive, hold well on tree‘Robyn’ - cooler location
33Venezuelan Navels ‘Cara Cara’ Red flesh even in lowland tropics (uncharacteristic of blood oranges)Show slide of Red Navel
34Pigmented OrangesGrown in Mediterranean climates with hot days and cool nights.Anthocyanin pigment rather thanlycopene as in grapefruitcarotenoid as in oranges‘Tarocco’, ‘Sanguinello’, ‘MaltaiseBetter color: Diurnal fluctations of temp- Low night temp are needed. Red color does not develop in Tropics.2. Cold storage intensifies color.3. Color best on partially shaded fruit.Show pictures of Torocco (Page-29) , Sanguinelli (page 28), and Maltaise (page 26).Maltaise orange- Queen of orangesTorocco- Italys’ finest quality orange variety.
35Acidless or Sugar oranges Low acid levelsTherapeutic propertiesSuccari-EgyptMosambi-East African/PortugueseSuccari--- Show page 31 picture
36C. sinensis Hybrids Citranges (sweet x trifoliate) Citrangors (sweet x citrange)Citrangequats (citrange x kumquat)Citrangeremos (citrange x Euremocitrus)
37Citrus reticulata Highly prized for easy peeling (zipper skin). Satsuma groupPrimarily grown in JapanImportant in Louisiana and for dooryard in Gulf CoastTangerine groupCommercial in Fla. - ‘Dancy’ and ‘Clementine’ -deep orangeWe will use mandarin to refer to tangerines, mandarines, mandarin oranges, tangelos, tangors, and other hybrids of tangerine with other citrus.Tangerine…commonly used in market place to refer to the more orange colored members of this group.Hodgson says 4 speciesTanaka says 26 speciesSwingle says species reticulata.Satsuma mandrin- C. unshiuShow the picture of Satsuma from Page 35King mandrin- C. nobilisMediterrannean mandarin- C. deliciosaCoommon mandarin- C. reticulataShow Clementine from page 41: Famous in Morocco, Spain.Show the slide next with Dancy tangerine
38Tangerines are small erect trees that. fruit at the end of branches Tangerines are small erect trees that fruit at the end of branches. The branches tend to be erect. The skin is loose and is hard to pick without damage but is the highest priced fruit. In Florida 10% of tangerines can be legally added to frozen orange concentrated for color.