Conflict Three types Prefer chapter 11. Realistic—scarce resources. Examples Symbolic—conflict over values, beliefs and ideas. Examples. Mixed motive—cooperation and competition. Can involve realistic or symbolic
Relationship Conflict and Task conflict Relationship—personal, defensive, blame finding Task conflict—merit of different ideas, problem solving.
Irony Symbolic conflict is easier to resolve than realistic. But symbolic conflict is often relationship based which is more difficult to resolve than task conflict.
Relationship conflict is difficult to manage Prevention is good But once it sets in communication. But already distrust. So communication is clouded.
Moving toward task conflict Shared goals Create a safe harbor (GE feeling safer to talk to Jack Welch). Training in task conflict. Avoiding Defensive behavior (blame finding vs problem solving) Interest based response vs power based responses or rights based response (no dialogue).
Avoid In group bias. In groups and outgroups. Linked to us vs them. Respect for diversity. Tendency to censor minority beliefs. Majority thinks one way—Get with it. Diversity and respect are so important from a positive position. Why is it so hard to do this?
Mediation through third parties. Humor and self-deprecation. Building a team identity as opposed to individual identity.
Reward structure Team vs individual incentives Hierarchy and status differences Resource scarcity vs Shared threat Stress vs social support and friendships Productivity goals vs harmony goals (Task and maintenance roles)
Team Decision Making and identity Decision by consensus Decision making by consensus is time consuming. Everyone expresses preferences. Everyone listens to everyone else’s preferences in uncritical manner. Summarize postions. Have other people discuss strengths and weakness of other peoples positions. Minimize personal stakes.
Book offers more Avoid Fix pie fallacy. Win lose thoughts are poor. Think win win. To do that understand underlying interests of everyone. Avoid sequential discussions. This is hard.
Decision my majority. Voting. What is the problem with Voting.
Decision by minority Person who sets the agenda for discussion has inordinate power. First topic is discussed most extensively. As time goes on issues get disscussed less. Where do you stack alternatives. (arrow paradox). Power, strategic manipulation. Its clear that only person with preferred alternative. So rejected. Then what do you do with your vote? Add to this coalitions.
Prefer to think about High Performance Teams. Chapter 8 of book.
Creativity and innovation The heart of teams. Generally, people are more creative and innovative in Teams. 3M Traditional hallmark of this. Pella Windows is too.
Creativity many different kinds of Creativity Practical Creativity Solving Unique problems Developing new ways of doing something. Farmers have to be creative mechanically. Cognitively creative. Viewing problems in new ways. Thinking outside the box.
Deeper Creativity Blockbuster ideas. New Product development. Pella creativity is more Problem solving 3M Mixture. Example
Creativity is linked to divergent thinking Rather than narrowing options, one wants to expand options. Goes against the time pressure of teams.
Creativity and problem solving Cognitive creativity. Defining the problem. Case analysis. Fishbone technique. What causes the problem. Not always transparent. Parking on campus.
Practical Problem Solving Idea generation. Brainstorming. Express any idea. No censorship More is better than fewer Build on the ideas of others. Put ideas together. Creativity comes from the juxtoposition of ideas. Shaggy is excellent.
Unfortunately Individual brainstorming is better than group brainstorming. That is group of 4 in team generate fewer ideas than 4 could individually. so why do it in a team?
In Groups Not follow rules Inhibitions Loaf (others are more creative than me) set low benchmakrs Conform Conform Conform. Lack of rewards for ideas.
What to do Facilitators with emphasis on maintenance roles. High benchmarks Working independently for a time. Nominal group technique. Operate independently. Diversity change membership.
Create a playground (Tom hanks and the movie Big). Getting People to do different things. Breadth of experience is an important minor contributor to profession experience. See how other people do things. Ideally it would be great to rotate team memberships.