# Waves Notes Ch. 10 Ch. 10 P. 290 (1-4) P. 290 (1-4) P. 296 (1-7) P. 296 (1-7) P. 303 (1-5) P. 303 (1-5) Ch. 11 Ch. 11 P. 327 (1-6) P. 327 (1-6) Ch. 12.

## Presentation on theme: "Waves Notes Ch. 10 Ch. 10 P. 290 (1-4) P. 290 (1-4) P. 296 (1-7) P. 296 (1-7) P. 303 (1-5) P. 303 (1-5) Ch. 11 Ch. 11 P. 327 (1-6) P. 327 (1-6) Ch. 12."— Presentation transcript:

Waves Notes Ch. 10 Ch. 10 P. 290 (1-4) P. 290 (1-4) P. 296 (1-7) P. 296 (1-7) P. 303 (1-5) P. 303 (1-5) Ch. 11 Ch. 11 P. 327 (1-6) P. 327 (1-6) Ch. 12 Ch. 12 P. 354 (1-3) P. 360 (1-7 ) P. 354 (1-3) P. 360 (1-7 ) Ch. 13 Ch. 13 P. 384 (1-5) P. 384 (1-5) Vocabulary

Waves Notes LINEAR MOTION= motion from one point to another without repeating. LINEAR MOTION= motion from one point to another without repeating. –Distance –Time –Speed –Acceleration HARMONIC MOTION= motion that repeats over and over. HARMONIC MOTION= motion that repeats over and over.

HARMONIC MOTION Cycle (cyclic motion) = a unit of motion that repeats. Cycle (cyclic motion) = a unit of motion that repeats. Oscillator (oscillating system) = a system that shows harmonic motion. Oscillator (oscillating system) = a system that shows harmonic motion. clocks clocks solar system solar system seasons seasons music & musical instruments music & musical instruments cell phones cell phones fm radio fm radio Period = time it takes for one cycle to occur. Period = time it takes for one cycle to occur.

Frequency = the number of cycles per second. unit = Hertz (Hz) 1 Hertz = 1 cycle/second ex: human heartbeat = ½ to 2 beats per second ex: human heartbeat = ½ to 2 beats per second ex: human voice = 100 to 2000 cycles per second ex: human voice = 100 to 2000 cycles per second

Amplitude a measure of how large the cycle is. a measure of how large the cycle is. This is the energy of a wave. This is the energy of a wave. ex: waves = height of the wave sound = volume

WAVES Transfer energy from place to place without transferring matter a disturbance in a medium. a disturbance in a medium. medium = matter that are able to carry a wave. medium = matter that are able to carry a wave. –ex: air carries sound waves – water carries waves

QUESTION: Can sound travel in space, in other words, could you hear in outer space? ANSWER: NO! Sound requires a medium to carry its energy. Since matter does not exist in space the sound energy would have nothing to travel on.

Transverse Waves = oscillations that are perpendicular (90º) to the direction the waves is moving. = oscillations that are perpendicular (90º) to the direction the waves is moving. oscillation^ wave motion > oscillation^ wave motion > ex: water, light

Compressional Waves = oscillations that are in the same directions as the motion of the waves. = oscillations that are in the same directions as the motion of the waves. oscillation> wave motion > oscillation> wave motion > ex: sound, shock waves ex: sound, shock waves

Animated Demo Animated Demo click on for link NOTE CHECK Animated Demo TAKE 2 MINUTES: With a partner, check each other’s notes to be sure both filled in all blanks

WAVE TERMS Frequency (f) = waves per second (measured in Hertz) Frequency (f) = waves per second (measured in Hertz) –known as Pitch in sound Amplitude = the height of the waves, the energy of the wave. Amplitude = the height of the waves, the energy of the wave. –Measured from the resting position to the crest. Wavelength (λ) = the length of one cycle. Distance from a point on a wave to the identical point on the next wave. Wavelength (λ) = the length of one cycle. Distance from a point on a wave to the identical point on the next wave.

PROPERTIES OF WAVES

Which of the graphs has an amplitude of 10 centimeters?

5 3 1 Name five parts of a wave : 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3.__________________________________ 4.__________________________________ 5. __________________________________ Compare and contrast the 2 types of waves : 1. Both = _______________________________ 2.Matter = ______________________________ 3. Matter = ______________________________ A wave is = 1. _____________________________________

WAVE SPEED Speed = the velocity the wave is traveling. Speed = the velocity the wave is traveling. velocity = wavelength x frequency velocity = wavelength x frequency v = λ x f v = λ x f units units f = Hertz (Hz) λ = meters (m) v = meters/second (m/s) Ex: An ocean wave has a frequency of 2 Hz and a speed of 20 m/sec. What is the wavelength of this wave? λ = v/f λ = 20 m/s ÷ 2 Hz = 10 m

Examples of the Speed of Waves Speed of Light 300,000,000 m/s 300,000 km/s 186,000 miles/s Speed of Light 300,000,000 m/s 300,000 km/s 186,000 miles/s

NOTE CHECK TAKE 2 MINUTES: With a partner, check each other’s notes to be sure both filled in all blanks

Examples of the Speed of Waves Speed of Sound Speed of Sound –Approx 340 m/s –Approx 770 miles/hr –This will vary a great deal due to temperature and atmospheric pressure Calculate the Speed of Sound Calculate the Speed of Sound Calculate the Speed of Sound Calculate the Speed of Sound

WAVES INTERACTIONS what results from waves hitting objects Reflection = The wave can bounce off and go in a new direction. Reflection = The wave can bounce off and go in a new direction. Angle of Incidence = inbound angle Angle of Incidence = inbound angle Angle of Reflection = outbound angle Angle of Reflection = outbound angle measured from the perpendicular and both angles are EQUAL measured from the perpendicular and both angles are EQUAL

Which is the angle of incidence? Which is the angle of reflection?

Refraction = The wave can pass straight into and through the obstacle and are bent due to the change in density of the medium.

Diffraction = The wave can bend around or through holes in the obstacle.

Absorption = The wave can be absorbed and disappear.

NOTE CHECK TAKE 2 MINUTES: With a partner, check each other’s notes to be sure both filled in all blanks

WAVE INTERFERENCE when 2 or more waves meet. when 2 or more waves meet. Constructive Interference = When waves meet “in phase” trough to trough or crest to crest. The resulting waves become larger. Constructive Interference = When waves meet “in phase” trough to trough or crest to crest. The resulting waves become larger. ex: Sound = resonance ex: Sound = resonance Resonating Chambers = sinuses, guitar, musical instruments Wind Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse in the 1940s

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Tacoma Narrows Bridge click for video Tacoma Narrows Bridge

“in phase”

WAVE INTERFERENCE Destructive Interference = When waves meet “out of phase” crest to trough. The resulting waves become smaller or even cancel each other. Destructive Interference = When waves meet “out of phase” crest to trough. The resulting waves become smaller or even cancel each other. ex: Dissonance = sound waves meet out of phase and noise results. ex: Dissonance = sound waves meet out of phase and noise results.

“out of phase”

THE DOPPLER EFFECT radar speed detectors radar speed detectors metrology to detect wind speeds & on coming weather fronts metrology to detect wind speeds & on coming weather fronts very noticeable in auto racing very noticeable in auto racing Approaching Object = sound wave are compressed due to the speed of the approaching object thus increasing the frequency or pitch of the sound of the object. Approaching Object = sound wave are compressed due to the speed of the approaching object thus increasing the frequency or pitch of the sound of the object. Departing Object = sound waves are stretched because the object is moving away from the listener thus decreasing the frequency or pitch of the sound of the object. Departing Object = sound waves are stretched because the object is moving away from the listener thus decreasing the frequency or pitch of the sound of the object.

NOTE CHECK TAKE 2 MINUTES: With a partner, check each other’s notes to be sure both filled in all blanks

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Electrons = the negatively charged particle in the atom is involved in light. – E lectrons can absorb energy by various ways causing them to jump to a higher energy level(s). –T–T–T–Then they give off energy in the form of light when they move from the higher to lower energy level(s).

Parts of the electromagnetic spectrum Radio waves Longest Wavelength Lowest Frequency Radio waves Longest Wavelength Lowest Frequency Microwaves Microwaves Infrared Infrared Visible Light Visible Light –ROY G BIV Ultraviolet Ultraviolet X-rays X-rays Gamma rays Short Wavelength Highest Frequency Gamma rays Short Wavelength Highest Frequency

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Radio waves (1 km to 30 cm) Radio waves (1 km to 30 cm) –ex: AM & FM radio, TV signals Microwaves (30 cm to 1 mm) Microwaves (30 cm to 1 mm) –ex: microwave ovens, cellular communication Infrared (1 mm to 70 nm) Infrared (1 mm to 70 nm) –ex: heat, sensors, guidance systems Visible Light ( 70 nm - 400 nm) Visible Light ( 70 nm - 400 nm) –ex: ROY G BIV Ultraviolet Ultraviolet –ex: sunburns, harmful to eyes, disinfect by killing bacteria X-Rays X-Rays –ex: medical & dental uses, inspect metal welding Gamma Rays Gamma Rays –ex: originate from the sun, atomic radiation

ROY G BIV Red Longest wavelength Lowest frequency Red Longest wavelength Lowest frequency Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Green Green Blue Blue Indigo Indigo Violet Shortest wavelength Highest frequency Violet Shortest wavelength Highest frequency

Visible Light Optics = the study of light Optics = the study of light Lasers = a single frequency of light Lasers = a single frequency of light

COLOR Primary Colors of Light Primary Colors of Light the color of transmitted light you see. The light source –Red –Green –Blue Red + Green + Blue = White Red + Green + Blue = White

COLOR Primary Colors of Pigment A pigment is a colored material that is used to change the color of other substances. Reflected light color –Magenta –Yellow –Cyan Magenta + Yellow + Cyan = Black Magenta + Yellow + Cyan = Black

Computer Settings pixel = dot = 3 numbers to assign the color (0-256) pixel = dot = 3 numbers to assign the color (0-256) Red, Green, Blue = RGB Red, Green, Blue = RGB –ex: (0, 0, 0) = black 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 *possible different colors 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 *possible different colors

The Eye Lens = Tiny muscles around the eye change the shape of the eye to focus the image when light passes through. Lens = Tiny muscles around the eye change the shape of the eye to focus the image when light passes through. Iris = The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye. Iris = The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye. Retina = A membrane lining the inside of the back of the eye composed of light sensitive receptors that are stimulated by the different wavelengths of light that makeup the image. Retina = A membrane lining the inside of the back of the eye composed of light sensitive receptors that are stimulated by the different wavelengths of light that makeup the image.

The Retina Rods = Rod-shaped receptors involved in night vision, peripheral vision (corners of the eyes) and making out the outline of objects. Rods = Rod-shaped receptors involved in night vision, peripheral vision (corners of the eyes) and making out the outline of objects. Cones = Cone-shaped receptors that contain color-sensitive pigments to detect red, blue, green and all their combinations. Cones = Cone-shaped receptors that contain color-sensitive pigments to detect red, blue, green and all their combinations.

Optical Illusion seen images that “trick” the brain into observing something that is not real. seen images that “trick” the brain into observing something that is not real. Mirage A false image in the distance produced by the refraction of light through air layers of different densities. A false image in the distance produced by the refraction of light through air layers of different densities. Ex. The appearance of water in the distance

Mirage

SOUND a pattern of air oscillations consisting of areas of high pressure to low pressure. Sound consists of longitudinal (compression) wave thus it is impossible for sound to travel in space. a pattern of air oscillations consisting of areas of high pressure to low pressure. Sound consists of longitudinal (compression) wave thus it is impossible for sound to travel in space. Acoustics = the science or study of sound Acoustics = the science or study of sound Amplitude = Loudness or Volume measured in Decibels (dB) Amplitude = Loudness or Volume measured in Decibels (dB)

Decibels (dB) 10 – 15 dBwhisper (3 ft away) 10 – 15 dBwhisper (3 ft away) 65 dB normal conversation (3 ft away) 65 dB normal conversation (3 ft away) 70 dBcity traffic 70 dBcity traffic 90 dBjackhammer (10 ft away) 90 dBjackhammer (10 ft away) 120 dBthreshold of physical pain 120 dBthreshold of physical pain 90 dB is 2x louder than 70 dB 90 dB is 2x louder than 70 dB

Frequency (Pitch) –20 Hzthunder –100 Hzbass guitar –500 Hzaverage male voice –5000 Hzhighest note on a piano –10,000 Hzjet turbine engine –20,000 Hzhighest human limits human range 20 to 20,000 hertz (best 100 to 2000) *test ??? human range 20 to 20,000 hertz (best 100 to 2000) *test ???

Speed of Sound approx. 340 m/s or 770 mi/hr (in air) approx. 340 m/s or 770 mi/hr (in air) Calculate Calculate Calculate speed varies greatly based on the density of the medium speed varies greatly based on the density of the medium ex: in air factors include altitude, humidity and temperature ex: in air factors include altitude, humidity and temperature

Supersonic super = above super = above sonic = sound sonic = sound motion that is faster than the speed of sound. motion that is faster than the speed of sound.

Ultrasound Medical use of sound waves to give internal images of the human body. Sonogram = Images of the baby during pregnancy.

Convex Lens Concave Lens

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