Chapter 19: Understanding Technical Aspects of Photography 1.The Camera a.Lenses
Kind of lens Length of lens Often used for Fisheye15mm Panoramic landscape shots Wide angle 35mm Large group shots Normal50mmCandids Short telephoto 85- 135mm Informal portraits Long telephoto 200 -300mm Spot news Extremely long telephoto 400 mm or longer Wildlife
2.Light & Exposure Control a.Apeture (opening) “F-Stops” 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 36 Wide - - Medium - - Narrow b.Depth of Field c.Shutter Speeds 2,4,8,15,30,60,125,250,500,1k,2k,4k Slow - - Medium - - Fastest d.ISO (film speed) ~ 100, 200,400, 800
What does ISO stand for? ISO refers to the International Organization for Standardization, founded in 1946 to develop a common set of manufacturing, trade and communication standards. Although it is commonly referred to as ISO, the name technically does not stand for anything. According to ISO officials, the organization's short name was borrowed from the Greek word isos, meaning "equal". Isos also is the root of the prefix, "iso,"which appears in "isometric" (of equal measure or dimensions) and "isonomy" (equality of laws or of people before the law). Its selection was based on the conceptual path taken from "equal" to "uniform" to "standard".
3.Alternative Cameras a. Point-&-Shoot 1)Autofocus uses a computer to run a miniature motor that focuses the lens for you. b. Digital 1)Digital image is just a long string of 1s and 0s that represent all the tiny colored pixels that make up the image. 2)focuses light onto a device that records it electronically. A computer then breaks this electronic information down into digital data.
a. Tiny light-sensitive diodes convert photons (light) into electrons (electrical charge). The brighter the light that hits a single diode, the greater the charge that will accumulate there. 1) 1216x912 pixels - This is a "megapixel" image size -- 1,109,000 total pixels b. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) measures the charge and creates a digital signal that represents the values of the charge at each pixel. c. digital zoom is a computer trick that magnifies a part of the information that hits the sensor.
Kodak recommends the following as minimum resolutions for different print sizes: Print SizeMegapixels Image Resolution Wallet0.3640x480 pixels 4x5 inches0.4768x512 pixels 5x7 inches0.81152x768 pixels 8x10 inches1.61536x1024 pixels
Image Size TIFF (uncompressed) JPEG (high quality) JPEG (medium quality) 640x4801.0 MB300 KB90 KB 800x6001.5 MB500 KB130 KB 1024x7682.5 MB800 KB200 KB 1600x12006.0 MB1.7 MB420 KB Standard image memory formats TIFF- Tag Image File Format (highest quality) JPEG- Joint Photographic Experts Group (good for photos, saves & emails well) GIF- Graphics Interchange Format (better for internet art & graphics) BMP- Bit Mapped Pictured (oldest, takes up most memory)
4.Darkroom a.Developing 35 mm Film- EMULSION 1)In total darkness, Roll film from magazine onto reel 2)In light-tight can,Rinse 3)Agitate in Developer for 12 min 4)Drain Developer 5)Rinse 3X 6)Acid stop, Rinse 7)Add Fixer- agitate for 1 min, let sit for 5 min 8)Rinse for 20 min 9)Squeegee and hand dry for 24 hrs