Presentation on theme: "CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT: Cold War Relations 1941-1965 What to do with Germany? What caused the Cold War?"— Presentation transcript:
CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT: Cold War Relations 1941-1965 What to do with Germany? What caused the Cold War?
2 WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR? Explain why Berlin was a cause of great tension Extract relevant details from a text source BACKGROUND INFORMATION At the Yalta Conference (before Germany had been defeated) They agreed to divide Germany into four zones; each one would be occupied by one of the four allies. Stalin agreed to accept France as one of the powers. Berlin would also be divided into four sectors. GROUP TASK (in fours) You are each to take on the role of one of the four nations – USSR, USA, Britain and France. Between you there will need to be a discussion as to how you will divide the country up into Four sectors - You should draw this on your maps once agreed upon. Things to consider: - They do not need to be equal in size -They should be in a suitable location and size for the winning nation - Can you convince your “allies” on what would be a suitable division ? - How will you settle the division of Berlin as agreed at Yalta? V –Yalta and Potsdam: What to do with Germany?
What were the main problems with dividing Germany? What course of action might either side take to ensure they maintain their own possession?
How happy would you have been with this outcome?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR? V –Yalta and Potsdam: What to do with Germany? SOURCE M Evening Standard July 1945 What does this British cartoon suggest about the relationship between the Big Three? Why might they alter over the next few weeks – look for clues and think of your past knowledge.
SOURCE N He (Truman) would come prepared on each subject with a short, firm declaratory statement of US policy, and when he had said his little piece he did little in subsequent discussion except reaffirm it. Winston was good but patchy. He was perhaps too ready to indulge in long dissertations which were evidently not to President Truman's taste. Stalin, on the other hand, spoke quietly, shortly, in little staccato sentences which Pavlov, his young interpreter, translated immediately into forceful English. In the discussions Stalin was often humorous, never offensive; direct and uncompromising. His hair was greyer than I expected, and was thinning. His eyes looked to me humorous, and often showed as mere slits, but he had a trick of looking up when he was thinking or speaking, to the ceiling to the right, and much of the time he would be pulling at a Russian cigarette. Walter Monckton, Britain's Solicitor-General, wrote about the Potsdam meeting on 3rd August, 1945. SOURCE O The Gradual Growth of Administration in the British Zone. The decision of the Potsdam Conference to treat Germany as a single economic unit proved impossible to carry out. The victorious powers had made an agreement that required unanimity by the Control Council for every decision. (The Allied Control Council was the four-power body set up to decide questions concerning Germany as a whole.) But the four powers were never agreed on their programme for Germany and the Soviet Union in particular pursued its own policy. At first even the three Western powers disagreed over policy towards Germany. The four occupation zones were drifting further and further apart economically and the economic chaos grew from the spring of 1945 onwards. Germany's economic structure required an exchange of agricultural products from the East, and to a lesser extent the South of the country, with the industrial production of the Ruhr and of other industrial regions. This exchange was stopped by the division of the country into four zones. The zonal commanders acted on the directives of their respective governments and each pursued his own policy in his own zone. This could only further hinder an economy already largely paralysed by the ravages of war. Konrad Adenauer, Memoirs 1945-53 (12th July, 1952) Explain why Berlin was a cause of great tension Extract relevant details from a text source
Explain why Berlin was a cause of great tension Extract relevant details from a text source Use both of these sources (N and O) to consider explain what was causing the tension at Potsdam. How much of a problem was the division of Germany in comparison to the role of the individual men, or their ideological differences, or the fact that Truman had the atomic bomb? Further questions to consider: Which of these sources in more reliable and why? (GRADE B) Which of these sources is more useful and why? (GRADE A) TOP TIP Don’t forget to quote from the sources when using them as evidence to put forward your opinion
BACKGROUND INFORMATION There would be free elections in Germany, freedom of speech and a free press. Germany would pay reparations for the damage caused by the war. Most of this would go to the USSR. All the Allies agreed to take part in the United Nations. He did not trust Germany – there had been two invasions in his own lifetime - 1914 and 1941. Stalin was determined to prevent this happening a third time. He wanted to make sure that Germany was kept weak, whereas the western Allies wanted Germany to be allowed to recover from the effects of the war. How was Germany governed after the war? Each of the four allies was to be responsible for its own sector. Decisions affecting Germany as a whole would be taken jointly and it was intended that Germany would be reunited in the future. Berlin the capital of Germany was inside the Soviet zone, so this was also divided into four sectors. It was governed by the Joint Kommandatura, which contained the military leaders of the four allies. West Berlin West Berlin was formed by the US, French and British sectors in Berlin from 1945 to 1991. West Berlin was very awkward for the Soviet Union and East Germany. It allowed people behind the Iron Curtain an opportunity to see what life was like in the West.
Who do you think “won” at Potsdam? POINTS TO CONSIDER – The Atomic Bomb – The division of Germany and Berlin 9