Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

On the record. When should I use quotations? Discussing specific arguments or ideas - Important to forming counter-arguments Giving added emphasis to.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "On the record. When should I use quotations? Discussing specific arguments or ideas - Important to forming counter-arguments Giving added emphasis to."— Presentation transcript:

1 On the record

2 When should I use quotations? Discussing specific arguments or ideas - Important to forming counter-arguments Giving added emphasis to a particularly authoritative source on your topic - Quote an expert -Harriet Jacobs, a former slave from North Carolina, published an autobiographical slave narrative in She exposed the hardships of both male and female slaves but ultimately concluded that "slavery is terrible for men; but it is far more terrible for women."

3 When should I use quotations? Analyzing how others use language - Literary analysis

4 The PB & J Approach The words that precede and follow a quotation are just as important as the quotation itself Think of a sandwich, and the quotation/evidence is the filling It needs bread, or it will be messy Lead in Evidence Analysis

5 Setting up Quotations Provide a context for each quotation Context should set the basic scene (when or where something happened) or introduce the author (establish credibility) A quote should NEVER stand alone

6 Embedding Quotations Right: Quotations need to be introduced appropriately using a signal phrase or sentence rather than being "dropped" into the paragraph with no context. Wrong: A dropped/stand alone quotation is inserted into the text without any lead in. The boy was terrified. “He swore he had just seen an unholy apparition.” Note that the quotation is not linked grammatically with the preceding sentence. It is standing all alone and quotations never should.

7 Ways to Fix Dropped/Hanging Quotations

8 Method 1 Use a full sentence to introduce the quotation. Wrong: The Swede feared for his life. "You are all out to get me" (Crane 97). Right: The Swede feared for his life: "You are all out to get me" (Crane 97). The colon links the preceding sentence with the quotation. Because both parts of this example are complete sentences, the colon (not the comma) is the appropriate mark to link them because a comma would create a comma splice.

9 Method 1 When embedding a quotation this way, a colon must be used! No other form of punctuation will work. This method is used to introduce a block quotation or a quotation that is a full sentence. This is the least desirable of the methods so use it VERY sparingly!

10 Method 1 Examples Wrong: The sergeant's letters affected the girl for a long time after she read them. “The story haunted her for days” (135). Right: The sergeant's letters affected the girl for a long time after she read them: “The story haunted her for days” (135). Wrong: The boy was terrified. “He swore he had just seen an unholy apparition” (66). Right: The boy was terrified: “He swore he had just seen an unholy apparition.”

11 Method 2 Use an explanatory sentence to introduce the quotation. Correct: The Swede showed that he feared for his life when he shouted, “You are all out to get me" (Crane 97). This example combines an explanatory sentence with the quotation.

12 Method 2 The explanatory sentence for this method sets up the quotation and gives the reader a sense of what is happening. When using this method, make sure the quotation fits the context of your explanatory sentence. To make the quotation fit the context of your lead in, you may need to add or delete information. See alterations section.

13 Method 2 Examples Wrong: The sergeant's letters affected the girl for a long time after she read them. “The story haunted her for days” (135). Right: After reading the sergeant's letters, the story that she found there “haunted her for days.” (135) Wrong: Holden gets frustrated and decides to leave. "People are always ruining things for you" (Salinger 88). Right: Holden gets frustrated and decides to leave, claiming that "people are always ruining things for you" (Salinger 88).

14 Method 3 Use a simple "tag" to introduce the quotation. Correct: The Swede shouted, "You are all out to get me" (Crane 97). This example uses a simple "tag" (a sentence using wrote, said, shouted, remarked, etc.) to introduce the quotation. Beware, using this method can be redundant if you don’t change which “tag” you use. Also, this method doesn’t really add to quote so use it sparingly.

15 Avoid the He Said/She Said Add Remark Exclaim Announce Reply State Comment Respond Estimate Write Point out Predict Argue Suggest Propose Declare Criticize Proclaim Note Complain Opine Observe Think Mention Maintain Believes Feels

16 Method 3 Examples Alexander Ramsey notes, “intelligent political discourse in this country is almost non-existent.” My cousin mentioned, “the car is broken.” According to Mrs. Geudtner, “English is, by far, the best subject.” She complained that, “no one ever puts their dishes in the dishwasher.”

17 Method 4 Using an expert. According to prolific author Stephen King, “Timid writers like… passive voice [because it] is safe.” This is particularly effective in persuasive essays because it lends credibility to your argument. Notable astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson points out, “The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it.”

18 Method 5 Make a quote part of your own sentence. This is the strongest method for integrating quotes and can also be the most tricky. Example: Harris believes that “heroes struggle to accept themselves” as part of their journey toward atonement. Example: The teacher agrees with “motivating students” through example, and she wants “[them] to work hard daily”.

19 Using Brackets and Ellipses Use Brackets [ ]: If you change a quote to keep it in present tense or third person, or in order to make it flow within your sentence in some way. Example: The teacher agrees with “motivating students” through example, and she wants “[them] to work hard daily”. Use Ellipses […] when you want to remove part of a quote replace that part with an ellipses. Example: Jon wanted to “answer the questions in class everyday…which led to an A”.

20 Alterations Use an ellipsis to omit information Original quotation “It is widely acknowledged that today’s drivers do more than just drive. Whether the distraction arises from built-in ‘infotainment’ systems or from portable electronic devices brought into the vehicle, drivers have a wide array of nondriving tasks available to them at any given time” (Salvucci and Taatgen 67). Shortened quotation Most people understand “that today’s drivers do more than just drive.... [D]rivers have a wide array of nondriving tasks available to them at any given time” (Salvucci and Taatgen 67).

21 Alterations Use brackets to add information Change words to fit sentence structure According to a company spokesperson, “The Texaco station [just outside Chicago] is one of the busiest in the nation” (Smith). Most importantly it was “With Scotch patience and pluck [that Pudd’nhead Wilson] resolved to live down his reputation and work his way into the legal field yet.”

22 Alterations When altering a quotation, avoid distorting the author’s intended meaning.

23 The Spice of Life Think of these methods like spices in a spice rack: you wouldn’t cook with only one of them. Using only one spice would lead to boring and predictable dishes Vary the ways you introduce quotations or your writing becomes boring and predictable (see how boring and predictable that is?)

24 Citing Sources Provide a parenthetical citation (a citation in parenthesis) for the quotation According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" though others disagree (Foulkes 184). According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). When Mr. Boeuf fails to materialize at the office, Papillion assumes he is feigning illness: “if this goes on I shall fire him. It’s not the first time he’s played me this trick” (Ionesco 47).

25 Citing Sources It is important to cite any ideas that are not your own to avoid plagiarism You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge Use your discretion to decide what is common knowledge, but cite a source when in doubt. Think crunchy PB: The quotation is the nuts and the citation is the creamy goodness that surrounds it.

26 Analyzing Quotations Explain/Analyze the significance of the quotation Reader needs assessment of why the quotation holds significance

27 Analyzing Quotations Analysis is the most important part of using quotations or other evidence. Think 20% quote/80% lead in context and analysis. Quotations are tools: they can’t build anything on their own. It is up to you to build a convincing argument using the evidence. How does this quotation support your argument or help make your point? If it doesn’t, don’t use it!

28 Analyzing Quotations Your analysis should be longer than the quotation, about twice as long (two pieces of bread) AVOID OVERUSING QUOTATIONS! They should only make up about 10% of your essay (20% of a body Paragraph)

29 One Tasty Sammy When Mr. Boeuf fails to materialize at the office, Papillion assumes he is feigning illness: “If this goes on I shall fire him. It’s not the first time he’s played me this trick” (Ionesco 47). Papillion shows no concern for his worker’s well being; instead he worries about being tricked. Papillion views his workers not as people but as commodities. A worker who is not present cannot be productive and therefore must be replaced.

30 One Tasty Sammy When Mr. Boeuf fails to materialize at the office, Papillion assumes he is feigning illness: “If this goes on I shall fire him. It’s not the first time he’s played me this trick” (Ionesco 47). Papillion shows no concern for his worker’s well being; instead he worries about being tricked. Papillion views his workers not as people but as commodities. A worker who is not present cannot be productive and therefore must be replaced.

31 One Tasty Sammy Perhaps the greatest flaw of teachers is the fact they often do not teach writing. This idea manifests itself in many different ways, but as one teacher researcher noted, “[the] challenge is getting teachers to teach writing rather than merely assign writing” (Scott 340). Teachers often do not model the writing process for students. Instead, they detail the parameters (length, style, etc.) of the assignment to be completed and show students an example, which is inevitably the best assignment the instructor has ever received. With no roadmap to get from what is required to the finished product, students are expected to gain insights of writing via osmosis from the excellent example. Needless to say, this is a fruitless endeavor. Writing is a skill, and as with any other skill, proficiency is attained through practice; however, students in the United States are being short changed when it comes to practicing writing.

32 One Tasty Sammy Perhaps the greatest flaw of teachers is the fact they often do not teach writing. This idea manifests itself in many different ways, but as one teacher researcher noted, “[the] challenge is getting teachers to teach writing rather than merely assign writing” (Scott 340). Teachers often do not model the writing process for students. Instead, they detail the parameters (length, style, etc.) of the assignment to be completed and show students an example, which is inevitably the best assignment the instructor has ever received. With no roadmap to get from what is required to the finished product, students are expected to gain insights of writing via osmosis from the excellent example. Needless to say, this is a fruitless endeavor. Writing is a skill, and as with any other skill, proficiency is attained through practice; however, students in the United States are being short changed when it comes to practicing writing.

33 Alterations Gone Crazy “We are going to get engaged,” Scott Reed, senior political strategist for the US Chamber of Commerce (which spent $35.7 million on federal elections in 2012) told Bloomberg. “The need is now more than ever to elect people who understand the free market and not silliness.” Brad Knickerbocker, Staff writer The Christian Science Monitor / October 19, 2013

34 Alterations Gone Crazy Political strategist Scott Reed noted the importance of bring humor back to Washington: “The need is now more than ever to elect people who understand… silliness.” Brad Knickerbocker, Staff writer The Christian Science Monitor / October 19, 2013

35 Build Your Own Sammy Remember, the words (bread) that precede and follow a quotation (messy deliciousness) are just as important as the quotation itself Don’t make a sandwich without bread Introduction Evidence Analysis


Download ppt "On the record. When should I use quotations? Discussing specific arguments or ideas - Important to forming counter-arguments Giving added emphasis to."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google