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Making Non-English Content More Accessible Elizabeth J. Pyatt Penn State

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Presentation on theme: "Making Non-English Content More Accessible Elizabeth J. Pyatt Penn State"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Making Non-English Content More Accessible Elizabeth J. Pyatt Penn State accessibilityweb@psu.edu

3 Who Am I? ¿Quién Soy? Pwy yw fi?  Accessibility  Instructional Designer  Researching accessibility since 2001  Webmaster  http://accessiblity.psu.edu/ http://accessiblity.psu.edu/  Foreign Language  Owner of multiple linguistic degrees  Still teach occasional course  Webmaster  http://symbolcodes.tlt.psu.edu/ http://symbolcodes.tlt.psu.edu/

4 Outline  Language Tags  Switches screen reader pronunciation  Can adjust spell checker also  Symbol Support  Unicode Standard  Tweaking Screen Readers  Non-Western Character Legibility  Entering characters

5 Classifying Language Support  Western Languages  Spanish, French, Italian, German…  Support built in to U.S. JAWS/VoiceOver  Includes pronunciation files for Western languages (e.g. Spanish, French, Italian)  Non Western/Exotic Languages  May need localized version of screen reader  Will likely include English support  Open source community?  Unusual technical symbols  Support varies, but may be enhanced

6 First…Language Codes  ISO-639  ISO = International Standards Org  639 = 2-letter language tags  Examples  en (English), fr (French), ja (Japanese)  es (Spanish), de (Dutch), zh (Chinese)  eu (Basque), cy (Welsh), ga (Irish)  hr (Croatian), sq (Albanian)….

7 Why “Language Tag”?  Documents and sections of docs should by tagged by language  My dog is black ( lang=“en” )  Mi gato es negro ( lang=“es” )  Language tagging allows  Accurate screen reader pronunciation  And enables accurate spell checking  And sorting through translated versions  And other important uses…

8 Also…3 Letter Codes  ISO-639-2 & ISO-639-3  Maintained by “SIL”  More languages – tons!  pgl: Primitive Irish (found on Ogam stones)  Use only if no 2-letter code is available (e.g. Zuni=“zun”)  Lookup demo  http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/ http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/  Lists ISO-639…ISO-639-3

9 Regions Too!  Codes can have national variants  en-US vs en-GB vs….  Changes screen reader accent  Makes “colour” OK in spell checker  es-MX vs. es-ES vs. es-AR  la paz ‘peace’ = “pahs” (MX) or “pahth” (ES)  zh-CN vs. zh-TW vs. zh-HK (Chinese)  Different script!  fr-FR vs. fr-CA  de-DE vs. de-CH (Swiss)  pt-BR vs pt-PT

10 Wikipedia Language Editions  Wikipedia URLs organized by language code  es.wikipedia.org = Spanish  chr.wikipedia.org = Cherokee  ang.wikipedia.org = Old English

11 Language Tag Demo  JAWS/NVDA  Audio Demo  Note how Spanish pronunciation changes  VoiceOver  Need to manually switch between language voices (Ugh!)  Can get VoiceOver to speak English like Sophia Vergara (great party trick!)  Audio Demo

12 Audio Demo Spanish in JAWS

13 HTML Lang Tags  HTML Header   In case your JAWS user isn’t an English speaker  Tag P (or DIV…)  Parlez-vous français?  Tag word  negro means “black”  B or I OK if NOT emphasizing content  Or you use SPAN

14 Non-Western Languages on JAWS  Not written in English alphabet  E.g. Chinese, Russian, Arabic…  Not read in U.S. JAWS  Partial Support VoiceOver  Install language plugin  Look for non-U.S. JAWS distributors  http://www.freedomscientific.com/forms/Contact_Us.asp?ID=Dealer http://www.freedomscientific.com/forms/Contact_Us.asp?ID=Dealer

15 Language Tags Word/PPT  Office 2010 (Win)  Review tab, Language Group Set Proofing Language  Office 2011 (Mac)  Tools : Language  Demo  Mathématique

16 PDF Language Tag Acrobat Pro XI Document: In Properties Window  File : Properties  Advanced tab  Language menu

17 PDF: Tagging a Section  Done in Tags panel  Right click tag to edit  May need to insert custom codes

18 Voiceover Voice Offerings  Lots of good choices BUT  LANG tag not recognized  Sofia Vergara effect when Spanish voice reads English  with “theek assent”  Non-English must be downloaded  can be hard in a lab  Audio Demo

19 Next: Tech Symbols  Tech Symbols = , ə,ŋ, ∲,∑, ⊃,¥,, ₩,, ₪,,  ≠ MathML (or ChemML)  Phonetics, currency, emoji, weather/astronomy, logic  ≠ MathML or ChemML  Although you can use this tech for one line expressions in a pinch.

20 First: Encoding and Symbols  What’s Encoding?  A scheme in which a number is assigned to a character (e.g. ASCII)  ASCII Examples 65=A66=B 67=C49=1 50=2 97=a98=b 99=c= ‘ 38=& 40=(41=) 91=[32= ‘ ’

21 Unicode  All characters in all scripts  Schema  0-127 = ASCII  128-255 = Additional Western char  255-911 = Extra Roman letters  912-1039 = Greek  1040-1328 = Cyrillic…  …. Up to 16^6 (16.7 million) potential spaces  http://www.unicode.org/ http://www.unicode.org/

22 Why Encoding Matters  Ensures character consistency  Consider the Wingding fonts  (hand gestures)  Actually “ A B C D E F ” in Unicode  But do screen readers read symbols aloud?  VoiceOver – yes for most  JAWS – Probably need to tweak symbol file  NVDA – Not much luck

23 Unicode also important for  Captions of non-English video  Handwriting recognition beyond English  Emoji support in general  Transmitting content over  LMS  Twitter & Facebook

24 JAWS Symbol File  eloq.sbl in settings  List of symbols supported by JAWS  A little skimpy IM-NSH-O  Can add symbols  Freedom Scientific has good starter download http://www.freedomscientific.com/Support/TechnicalSu pport/Bulletin/1066 Freedom Scientific http://www.freedomscientific.com/Support/TechnicalSu pport/Bulletin/1066  Add more  U+20B9=Rupee symbol of India  Update eloq.sbl  Requires admin level access  Location Changed between JAWS 13 & 14  http://accessbility.psu.edu/jawssymbols http://accessbility.psu.edu/jawssymbols

25 Jaws Demo of Symbols  Audio 1  Default.sbl file  Audio 2  Adjusted.sbl file

26 VoiceOver Pronunciation  VoiceOver has better symbol support But….  Can add to dictionary in VoiceOver Utility

27 VoiceOver Utility

28 Pronunciation

29 Legibility of Non-Western Characters  May need to bump up font sizes  24 Point: 汉语 / 漢語 & हिन्दी  30 Point: 汉语 / 漢語 & हिन्दी  Traditional (serif) vs non-traditional fonts  Default fonts from Apple/Microsoft are typically sans-serif  Serif could be better  n ŋ ɲ ɳ ñ (Lucida Grande)  n ŋ ɲ ɳ ñ (SIL Charis)

30 Entering Characters  Standard  Numeric codes  Option or ALT codes  Consider also  Alternate keyboard drivers  Activate in Control Panel/System Prefs  Can make symbols more available  Text Expander/Breevy (Best Customization)  Demo here

31 Where to now?  Beware English-only mindset  Does your accessibility product support Spanish? other languages?  Active open source communitirs  Wish list  Would like to see pronunciation file standards  Most languages have more regular orthographic rules  Easier dictionary access  More Unicode support!


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