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Computer Vision CS 776 Spring 2014 Cameras & Photogrammetry 1 Prof. Alex Berg (Slide credits to many folks on individual slides)

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Cameras & Photogrammetry 1 Albrecht Dürer early 1500sBrunelleschi, early 1400s

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Overview of next two lectures The pinhole projection model Qualitative properties Perspective projection matrix Cameras with lenses Depth of focus Field of view Lens aberrations Digital cameras Sensors Color Artifacts

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Let’s design a camera Idea 1: put a piece of film in front of an object Do we get a reasonable image? Slide by Steve Seitz

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Pinhole camera Add a barrier to block off most of the rays Slide by Steve Seitz

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Pinhole camera Captures pencil of rays – all rays through a single point: aperture, center of projection, focal point, camera center The image is formed on the image plane Slide by Steve Seitz

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Pinhole cameras everywhere Tree shadow during a solar eclipse photo credit: Nils van der Burg http://www.physicstogo.org/index.cfm http://www.physicstogo.org/index.cfm Slide by Steve Seitz

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Figures © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Dimensionality reduction: from 3D to 2D 3D world2D image What is preserved? Straight lines, incidence What is not preserved? Angles, lengths Slide by A. Efros

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Modeling projection To compute the projection P’ of a scene point P, form the visual ray connecting P to the camera center O and find where it intersects the image plane All scene points that lie on this visual ray have the same projection in the image Are there scene points for which this projection is undefined? x y z f Source: J. Ponce, S. Seitz

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Modeling projection The coordinate system The optical center ( O ) is at the origin The image plane is parallel to xy-plane (perpendicular to z axis) Source: J. Ponce, S. Seitz x y z f Projection equations Derived using similar triangles:

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Projection of a line What if we have another line in the scene parallel to the first one? image plane camera center line in the scene vanishing point Slide by Steve Seitz

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Vanishing points Each direction in space has its own vanishing point All lines going in that direction converge at that point Exception: directions parallel to the image plane

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Vanishing points Each direction in space has its own vanishing point All lines going in that direction converge at that point Exception: directions parallel to the image plane What about the vanishing line of a plane? Slide by Steve Seitz

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The horizon Vanishing line of the ground plane –All points at the same height as the camera project to the horizon –Points higher than the camera project above the horizon –Provides way of comparing height of objects camera center ground plane Slide by Steve Seitz

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The horizon Slide by Steve Seitz

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Perspective cues Slide by Steve Seitz

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Perspective cues Slide by Steve Seitz

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Perspective cues Slide by Steve Seitz

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Comparing heights VanishingPoint Slide by Steve Seitz

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Measuring height 1 2 3 4 5 5.4 2.8 3.3 Camera height What is the height of the camera? Slide by Steve Seitz

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Perspective in art Masaccio, Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1425-28 One of the first consistent uses of perspective in Western art Slide Svetlana Lazebnik

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(at least partial) Perspective projections in art well before the Renaissance From ottobwiersma.nl Also some Greek examples, So apparently pre-renaissance…

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Perspective distortion What does a sphere project to? M. H. Pirenne

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Perspective distortion What does a sphere project to?

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Perspective distortion The exterior columns appear bigger The distortion is not due to lens flaws Problem pointed out by Da Vinci Slide by F. Durand

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Perspective distortion: People

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Modeling projection Projection equation: Source: J. Ponce, S. Seitz x y z f

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Homogeneous coordinates Is this a linear transformation? Trick: add one more coordinate: homogeneous image coordinates homogeneous scene coordinates Converting from homogeneous coordinates no—division by z is nonlinear Slide by Steve Seitz

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divide by the third coordinate Perspective Projection Matrix Projection is a matrix multiplication using homogeneous coordinates In practice: lots of coordinate transformations… World to camera coord. trans. matrix (4x4) Perspective projection matrix (3x4) Camera to pixel coord. trans. matrix (3x3) = 2D point (3x1) 3D point (4x1)

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Whole “pipeline” World to camera coord. trans. matrix (4x4) Perspective projection matrix (3x4) Camera to pixel coord. trans. matrix (3x3) = 2D point (3x1) 3D point (4x1) Just one matrix (+ dehomogenization) but with a special structure

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Orthographic Projection Special case of perspective projection Distance from center of projection to image plane is infinite Also called “parallel projection” What’s the projection matrix? Image World Slide by Steve Seitz

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More reading & thought problems Shape from Chebyshev netsShape from Chebyshev nets, Koendereink & van Dorn Accidental pinhole and pinspeck camerasAccidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras. Torralba & Freeman Show that a sphere can look like a non-circular under perspective projection. What does a pinhole camera image look like as you make the pinhole larger?

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