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By Luigi Cardamone, Daniele Loiacono and Pier Luca Lanzi.

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Presentation on theme: "By Luigi Cardamone, Daniele Loiacono and Pier Luca Lanzi."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Luigi Cardamone, Daniele Loiacono and Pier Luca Lanzi

2  Introduction  Related work  Torcs  Imitation learning  What sensors?  What actions?  What learning method?  What data?  Experimental results  Discussion, conclusions and future work

3  What is imitation learning?  Supervised learning  Neuroevolution  Two main methods  Direct methods  Indirect methods

4  Direct methods are well-known to be very ineffective.  Our methods develop drivers with only 15% lower performance than best bot in TORCS.  The trick is in “human-like” high-level action prediction

5  Introduction  Related work  Torcs  Imitation learning  What sensors?  What actions?  What learning method?  What data?  Experimental results  Discussion, conclusions and future work

6  Imitation learning in computer games  Rule-based NPC for Quake III via two-step process  Quake II NPC via reinforcement learning, fuzzy clustering and a Bayesian motion-modeling.  Neural networks with backpropagation for Legion II and Motocross The Force.  Drivatar training for Forza Motosport

7  Introduction  Related work  Torcs  Imitation learning  What sensors?  What actions?  What learning method?  What data?  Experimental results  Discussion, conclusions and future work

8 The rangefinder sensor The lookahead sensor

9  4 low-level effectors in TORCS  Wheel  Gas pedal  Brake pedal  Gear change  2 high-level actions in this work  Speed  Trajectory

10  K-nearest neighbor  Training : ▪ Doesn’t need any training  How it was applied? ▪ Directly during the TORCS race ▪ At each tic, the logged data is searched to find the k most similar instances. ▪ The k similar instances are selected and averaged

11  Neural networks  Training ▪ Neuroevolution with Augmenting Topology (NEAT) to evolve both the weights and the topology of a neural network  How it was applied? ▪ 2 networks, for speed and target position prediction ▪ Rangefinder networks with 19 angle inputs + 1 bias input ▪ Lookahead networks with 8 segments inputs + bias input ▪ The fitness was defined as the prediction error

12  Inferno bot on 3 tracks for 3 laps each  Simple fast track  Difficult track with many fast turns  A difficult track with many slow sharp turns  Only the data of second lap was recorded  3 data sets with 1982, 3899 and 3619 examples  Additional all-in set with 9500 examples

13  Introduction  Related work  Torcs  Imitation learning  What sensors?  What actions?  What learning method?  What data?  Experimental results  Discussion, conclusions and future work

14  Overall, we obtained 16 models  2 learning algorithms  datasets  2 types of sensors  K-nearest algorithm was applied with k = 20  NEAT was applied with 100 individuals for 100 generations  All the experiments were conducted using TORCS 1.3.1

15  Each model was evaluated by using it to drive a car on each track for game ticks.  The tracks  3 tracks used for training  2 unseen tracks ▪ A simple fast track ▪ A track with many fast and difficult turns  The driver was also equipped with standard recovery policy.

16  Inferno was better than its imitations  Lookeaheads are better than rangefinders  K-nearest neighbor is better than NEAT  One of the models had only 15% lower performance than Inferno bot.

17

18  Direct methods result in low computational cost  Our approach needs 30 times less CPU time to obtain reasonable results

19  How much lookahead is useful?  Second series of tests with 8 and 16 lookeahead values showed overfitting

20  Introduction  Related work  Torcs  Imitation learning  What sensors?  What actions?  What learning method?  What data?  Experimental results  Discussion, conclusions and future work

21  Good drivers  Close to the target bot  Run out of the track in difficult turns as a result of prediction error or a low reactivity in steering  Bad drivers  Many discontinues in the prediction of trajectories  Causes car to move quickly from one side of the track to the other one

22  Two different places can be perceived the same  Usually happens on long straight parts of the road  Can be solved via special treatment of straight parts, full throttle or bigger lookahead

23  Supervised learning to imitate a driver  High-level aspect of driving, speed and trajectory rather than low-level effectors  Novel lookahead sensor  Good results with k-nearest neighbor  Inferno bot is still better due to perceptual aliasing and slow steering during abrupt turns

24  Exploit structural symmetry on the track  Increase the robustness to noise  Reduce computational cost  Improve steering reaction to abrupt turns


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