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Equity- Equality- Inclusion: Normative principles in development

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1 Equity- Equality- Inclusion: Normative principles in development
Gabriele Köhler Development economist, Munich Visiting Fellow, IDS, Sussex Ludwig Maximilians University PhD-Program International Health Module I Munich, 14 December 2011 The objective of this session: Build on preceding session on the politics of development cooperation and the development architecture and trace the evolution of development thhinking and policy recommendations Understand concepts and processes: social exclusion, economic poverty, equity, equality, human rights instruments Understanding policy appraoches: universalism, targeting, Overall: sensitisation to global inequalities and inequity Ability to understand and assess social policy choices 3 parts: I) Normative frameworks II) Some information on inequities – social exclusion and income poverty III) Policy approaches

2 Overview of presentation
Normative framework Developmental role of human development, human rights, equity: income poverty, human development concept, social exclusion Policies for human development, human rights, equity

3 I.) Normative frameworks
From physical investment to social capital – from the UN development decades to human development From the UN’s social summits of the 1990s to the Millennium Declaration in 2000 From the Millenium Declaration to a new development constellation with multi-polar views and trends After the encompassing approach of the UN Charter used in the 1950s, the UN development decades and early, formalised development cooperation – discussed in preceding session – had an understanding of development centred on economic factors and which diagnosed the lack of capital as the main impediment to growth and development in developing countries, hence a focus on capital transfers primarily in the form of official development assistance. In the 1990s, a unified vision of economic and social policy reemerged, as witnessed by the series of UN summits. These were brought together in the Millennium Assembly in 2000 which adopted the Millennium Declaration and then in 2002 the MDGs.

4 I.) Normative frameworks
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 comprehensive normative framework The 2 Covenants 1966 on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on Civil and Political Rights The Right to Development 1986 economic, social, cultural and political development International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1969 (CERD) Convention on the Eradication of all Forms of Discrimination against Women 1979 (CEDAW) Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990 (CRC) The human rights agenda was a cornerstone of the United Nations at its foundation – encapsulated in the term “freedom from fear and freedom from want”. It was shaped by the shock of the era of fascism, imperialism and of the earlier great depression – the economic crisis of 1929 ff. In the 1960s, the Covenants on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as well as the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights were adopted at the UN General Assembly. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted 1966, and in force from 1976 commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. The Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted 1966, entry into force1976, commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to individuals, including labour rights and rights to health, education, and an adequate standard of living. In1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development. It defined the Right to Development as "an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized." UN General Assembly: Declaration on the Right to Development, 4 December 1986, 97th plenary meeting. In general, cold war politics hollowed out the UN commitment to human rights and emphasis shifted one-sidedly to economic poverty. Human Rights only really became a strong pillar of the UN since the mid-1990s. In recent years, the research of the special rapporteurs presented to the commission on human rights and to the UN General Assembly are shaping the discourse.

5 I.) Normative frameworks
Recent developments: Emergence of rights oriented conventions and instruments in the UN context FAO 2004, Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security - includes livelihoods and land reform World Health Assembly return to Alma Ata primary health care for all Global Social Floor Initiative since 2009 –striving for an ILO Recommendation on Social Protection for all 2012 MDGs 2010: more emphasis on equity, inclusion, human rights Special rapporteurs - experts of OHCHR combining the humanist with the intellectual Recent encouraging developments at the UN include the rights-based agenda – examples include decisions of the governing bodies of the FAO and WHO, and the new proposal to create an international convention on social protection for all. A more rights-based understanding of the MDGs is also emerging, and the role of the OHCHR deserves special mention as the reports of the special rapporteurs/experts are well researched, independent but engaged and critical analyses, and becoming increasingly influential.

6 I.) Normative frameworks
The Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the roles of the Special Rapporteurs on poverty; the right to food; education; adequate housing; safe drinking water and sanitation; violence against women; right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health) and other substantive areas. “The mission of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is to protect and promote human rights for all. OHCHR aims to ensure implementation of universally recognized human rights norms, strengthen the United Nations human rights programme, and provide the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies and special mechanisms established by the Commission on Human Rights with the highest support.” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights: Special Rapporteurs have an increasingly prominent role and are moving from more legally-oriented themes to economic and social development. The list includes: on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions (1982) on freedom of religion or belief (1986-) on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (1990-) on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (1993-) on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (1993-) on violence against women, its causes and consequences (1994-) on the independence of judges and lawyers (1994-) on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (1995-) on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human rights (1995-) on the right to education (1998-) on the question of human rights and extreme poverty (1998-) on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living (2000-) on the right to food (2000-) on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health (2002-) of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights defenders (2000-) on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people (2001-) of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons (2004-) on the human rights of migrants (1999-) on minority issues (2005-) on human rights and international solidarity (2005- on the effects of economic reform policies and foreign debt on the full enjoyment of human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights (2000-) on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism (2005-) on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children (2004-) of the SG on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises (2005-)

7 II.) The developmental role of human development, human rights, and equity
Income poverty The concept of human development and some reflections The concept of social exclusion

8 (1) Income poverty Poverty is often defined as living below a defined poverty line, and halving poverty is one of the MDGs. The core deprivation is poverty, and conventionally it was seen defined as income poverty.

9 (1) Global income poverty


11 Income poverty But: number of extremely poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia increased using $1.25 per personday income poverty measure Number of poor and vulnerable people: 2.5 billion persons using $2 per personday income poverty measure However, when looking closely, poverty actually increased in 2 major regions of the world. And: Using a one-dimensional income poverty indicator, $2 per person per day would be a more realistic poverty line. It shows a large absolute number of the world population under the poverty line, who are highly vulernable to economic, political, household and community or national-level level shocks. Also, indicators of income distribution have worsened globally, and even in countries where „dollar a day poverty“ has been decreasing, income disparities between the richest and poorest segments of the population – the Gini index – have widened (see UN-WIDER studies on income distribution).

12 Source: http://www. nationmaster
Data on latest available year, from

13 (2) The concept of human development
A systematic examination of how human beings in each society live and what substantive freedoms they enjoy A notion of the broadening of choices Based on the idea that economic and social development matter

14 (2) The concept of human development
The Human Development Reports (HDRs) of UNDP in 1990 introduced a 3-pronged definition of human development Distinctive human development discourse Longevity Educational attainment incomes Concept adjusted for gender, for equity, and for multidimensional aspects of poverty (UNDP Human Development Report 2010) The idea of human development goes beyond economic indicators (such as gross national product per capita ) and income poverty. The 2010 United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report introduced the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). This new international measure of poverty complements income-based poverty measures by reflecting the multiple deprivations that people face at the same time across 104 developing countries. The MPI identifies deprivations across health, education and living standards, and shows the number of people who are multidimensionally poor and the deprivations that they face on the household level. Source:

15 Worldwide trends in the Human Development Index, 1970-2010:
UNDP Human Development Report 2010.New York.

16 Since 2002, another criterion has become very visible in development debates – the MDGs with their 8 goals, 20 targets and 50 indicators.


18 Weak relationship between economic growth and changes in health and education:
This is important in that it shows that economic growth does not necessarily improve social or human development.

19 Wellbeing Different discourses:
Wellbeing as objective, subjective and relational Multidimensional poverty Missing domains Sabine Alkire. Multidimensional poverty index. OPHI. Oxford University

20 In 2003, Global Footprint Network, a 501c (3) nonprofit organization, was established to enable a sustainable future where all people have the opportunity to live satisfying lives within the means of one planet.An essential step in creating a one-planet future is measuring human impact on the Earth so we can make more informed choices.That is why our work aims to accelerate the use of the Ecological Footprint — a resource accounting tool that measures how much nature we have, how much we use, and who uses what.The Ecological Footprint is a data-driven metric that tells us how close we are to the goal of sustainable living. Footprint accounts work like bank statements, documenting whether we are living within our ecological budget or consuming nature’s resources faster than the planet can renew them.Global Footprint Network.

21 Absolute poverty in Asia, Europe and Latin America
mercredi 22 mars 2017 Absolute poverty in Asia, Europe and Latin America Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre Sources: World Bank (2009), Gallup (2010)

22 Absolute poverty in Africa
Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre

23 A success story? A lower-middle income country
mercredi 22 mars 2017 A success story? A lower-middle income country Average 5% annual growth rate since 1990 60% of budget dedicated to social sectors Nearly 100% primary enrollment in 2008 80% health care coverage ‘Prudent public debt management’ (42.8% of GDP in 2009) 3% fiscal deficit Inflation at approx. 3% in the 2000s Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre

24 mercredi 22 mars 2017 Tunisia Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre Source: OECD/AfDB/UNECA (2010), African Economic Outlook

25 Higher average incomes, better health and improved education do not automatically mean higher life satisfaction Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre

26 3. The impact of social exclusion
Systematic social exclusions are the result of the intersecting inequalities Cultural inequalities Spatial inequalities: Economic inequalities Political inequalities The interaction of the exclusions explains the persistence of social exclusion over time. ( Naila Kabeer) Cultural inequalities: forms of discrimination and devaluation that treat members of these groups as of lesser status and worth than others Spatial inequalities: such groups frequently live in places that make them harder to reach or easier to Ignore Economic inequalities: they are at the receiving end of an unfair distribution of assets and opportunities Political inequalities: they are deprived of voice and influence in the decisions that affect their lives and their communities (Naila Kabeer. Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities)

27 Vectors of social exclusion
GENDER Income/economic class/ access to productive assets Caste/clan Ethnicity Faith Language Health condition/communicable/visible diseases Ability/disability Geographic location/”distance”/urban vs rural Citizenship and migration status Condition of menstruation Sexual orientation Recurrent emergency situations Conflict situation Age The academic and applied literature and my own empirical analysis suggest that social exclusion along the vectors of gender, caste, ethnicity, religious affiliation, language group, disability, geographical location, age, and other vectors is a key reason for poor MDG performance.

28 (3) Impact of Social Exclusion
MDG outcomes perform worse among socially excluded groups – they need special measures to enable them to claim their rights to social services and public goods Disparities based on social exclusion must be made more visible Policies to address the inequities resulting from exclusion are needed 4 manifestations of social exclusion: Endowments and ownership of or access to assets Processes generating productive or primary entitlements Social provisioning Full and equal citizenship (UN DESA Report on the World Social Sitution 2010, p. 65 f) Exclusion of groups based on their self- or externally ascribed identities (Naila Kabeer, 2006) Unfavourable inclusion, active/passive exclusion (Amartya Sen, 2000) Participatory exclusion (Bina Agarwal)

29 Some examples of disparate outcomes follow.



32 Intergenerational education impact on child situations

33 Religious affiliation and deprivations, Bhutan

34 Literacy rate of population aged 15 years and above by yearly HH income (Rural Myanmar)
Data Source: Ohnmar, Than-Tun-Sein, Ko-Ko-Zaw, Saw-Saw and Soe-Win. Household Income, Health and Education in Rural Myanmar. SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH Volume 36 No 2 March 2005 , p532

35 Ethnic identity and school enrolment, Myanmar
Data Source: IDMC (2003). Conflict, poverty and language difference behind low school attendance in the ethnic states. Access to Education. Found on

36 III. Policies for human development, human rights, and equity
So what to do?

37 Social policy can be understood broadly as covering a whole range of areas. Within this, social services are traditionally those listed under "Policies around the basic social situation". Their specific composition varies from one country to another based on institutions, history, and political dynamics.  The other areas are increasingly emerging as areas that need to be covered by social policy. There are also many differences in the role of government regarding social services. The Government could deliver, finance or merely regulate social services. In mainstream welfare states, social services are seen as public goods and delivered by the state, paid for out of taxation.

38 Promoting equity, equality and inclusion
Equality is the principle that all human beings are equal and have equal rights Equity is a principle that refers to fairness of treatment according to needs and specific requirements. This means that a policy may be equitable – equal coverage across all districts, or equal coverage per person, but may not be equitable, because for some individuals or communities access may be more cumbersome, more expensive, or socially more daunting. Equity is a principle within a universalist, citizenship- and rights-based approach whereby special measures are in place to ensure that those individuals, households or identity groups who are disadvantaged are put into a position to claim their rights and have access to basic income and high-quality social services.

39 Approaches to address income poverty
Employment and decent work as the key response Agricultural development, land reform, and rural off-farm employment opportunities, access to agricultural inputs and to (micro-) credit Social protection as a core mechanism – social protection floors Systematic income redistribution

40 New approaches to socio-economic policy: decent work agenda
Global jobs pact policies: Retain employed in employment/rapid reentry/sustain enterprises/maintain wage levels Support job creation/investment in employment-intensive sectors/green jobs Protect persons/families affected: social protection Enhance support to women, men, youth Act simultaneously on labour demand and supply Equip workers with skills “for today and tomorrow” Use public employment guarantees, include informal economy Increase investment in infrastructure, R&D, public services and “green production” Respect international labour standards Tripartite decision of employers, workers and governments. Refers to the decision of the UN Chief Executives Board on system-wide joint crisis responses. Calls for coordinated policy action. Asks for special attention to developing countries – especially the least developed. Asks government to include jobs pact into their policy making Asks donors to provide support Source: ILO, A Global Jobs Pact. Recovering from the crisis. Adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 98th session, Geneva, 19 June 2009.ILO Geneva. See pages IV and V, 3 ff

41 Social Protection Floor
Source: Note from the ILO: The International Labour Conference, at its 100th Session, concluded its discussions on the role of social security with a commitment to establishing national social protection floors aiming at extending at least a minimum level of social security to all, as part of comprehensive social security systems. The extension of social security to all has moved a decisive step forward. At its 100th Session, the International Labour Conference* ha adopted a Resolution on social protection (social security) which reconfirms the role of social security as a human right and a social and economic necessity for countries at all levels of development. This Resolution expresses the commitment of government, employer and workers in the 183 member States of the ILO to step up their efforts to build national social protection floor as part of their national strategies to develop comprehensive social security systems.  The Resolution on social protection endorses a two-dimensional strategy to the extension of social security to all aiming at building comprehensive social security systems, as laid out in the ILO Report submitted to the Conference . The horizontal dimension of the two-dimensional strategy aims at the rapid implementation of national Social Protection Floors, introducing basic social security guarantees that ensure that over the life cycle all in need have effective access to health care and a minimum level of income security. Such policies aim at facilitating effective access to essential goods and services, promote productive economic activity and be implemented in close coordination with other policies enhancing employability, reducing informality and precariousness, creating decent jobs and promoting entrepreneurship. The vertical dimension of the two-dimensional strategy seeks to provide progressively higher levels of protection, guided by the ILO up-to-date social security standards, to as many people a spossible as soon as possible. The two dimensions of the extension of coverage are consistent with moving towards compliance with the requirements of the Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952(No. 102) and are of equal importance and should be pursued simultaneously where possible. The conference stressed that social dialogue is essential in identifying and defining priority policy objectives; the design of the corresponding benefits, entitlements and delivery methods; theallocation of the financial burden between generations and between contributors and tax payers; and the need to find a fair balance between social expectations and financial constraints. The Conference noted the need for a new Recommendation complementing existing ILO international social security standards “that would provide flexible but meaningful guidance to member States in building Social Protection Floors within comprehensive social security systemstailored to national circumstances and level of development.” In viewof the importance of, and the need for national Social Protection Floors, the Governing Body of the ILO has therefore decided that the101th Session of the International Labour Conference in 2012 should discuss this possible Recommendation as a follow-up to the discussion in2011. If adopted, this Recommendation would provide a  guideline to membed States on the implementation of national Social Protection Floors as a means to reducing poverty and promoting sustainable economic andsocial development.The Chair of the Social Protection Floor Advisory Group and Executive Director of UN Women, former President of the Republic of Chile, Ms.Michelle Bachelet, stated in her address to the Committee on the Recurrent Discussion on Social Protection on 13 June 2011 that “thee xtension of social protection, drawing on social protection floors, universalizing social rights and access to basic services, is not an utopia. It is necessary, possible and effective.” The Executive Director of the Social Protection Sector, Mr. Assane Diop, noted that the adoption of the Resolution by the Committee marked a “day of hope... for the five billion people around the world who do not enjoy the full range of social security benefits, whose pensions are too low, whose access to health care is not sufficient, who have no means ofsupport in case of unemployment” and “for the about one billion people that have virtually no social security and face the risks of life and economic upheavals completely unprotected.” 

42 Global social protection floor
Movement to adopt a social floor recommendation at 2012 ILO Conference

43 Policy approaches to create equitable access to social services
Ensure universal free social services delivery underpinned by health insurance in the case of health services Equitable access to services, geographically and socially Ensure equal quality of services – staffing, people skills and material resources Ensure cultural sensitivity Ensure transparent information Enable inclusive participatory programming and participation Valorise community-based services

44 Policy approaches to address exclusion
Include compensatory/reparatory measures to overcome generational exclusion – redress mechanisms Address on-going exclusion and discrimination-affirmative action (reservation, representation, protective legislations, budget allocations, social protection cash transfers) Protect against violence Address impunity Support public education to address discrimination and exclusion Ensure inclusive health services Change disparaging language and designations Enable inclusive programming-empowerment

45 Policy approaches Universalism and targeting
Universalism is an approach in social policy that is rights based,and hence strives to cover all citizens with a social policy service or transfer, usually using taxes or other public resources to fund the intervention. Targeting is a needs-based approach, covering those most vulnerable or the poorest as a priority, because funds are limited. Examples Universalism: UK child benefit South Africa basic income grant for citizens and migrants (check) Targeting: BPL transfers Hartz IV

46 Emerging “innovations” in policy discourse
Multidimensional understanding of poverty Attention to employment and decent work Push for social protection & social protection floors Stronger emphasis on maternal and child health Recognition social exclusion with much more focus on equity policies A discussion of tax reform incl progressive taxation Recognition of the role of agriculture, rural development and the need for some kind of land reform Universalism, social contract, rights based approach Acknowledgement of the role of the state 8 innovations observed at the high level meeting and in associated meetings and discussions and recent UN flagship reports: Attention to employment and decent work, with the global jobs pact Push for social protection, including the  global social floor movement, supported by the entire UN system; concerted emphasis on maternal and child health;  recognition of the debilitating impact of social exclusion on poverty, human development and the individual MDG targets with much more focus on equity policies; a call for tax reform and some form of progressive taxation to redress income and asset inequalities;  a nascent attention, after decades of neglect of the need to invest in agriculture and undertake some form of land reform; the emerging trend for a rights based approach, witnessed most clearly by the very vocal human rights special rapporteurs on the right to food and other basic rights, or the recent adoption of a right to water the role of the pubic sector in delivering education, health, social protection, and perhaps even creating employment These concepts and policies are slowly gaining ground in UN fora and development cooperation conversations in South and North.  Source

47 Emerging “innovations” in policy discourse
G20 – Cannes final declaration (2011) Global strategy for growth and jobs Employment and social protection More stable & resilient international monetary system Deepening financial sector reforms Addressing food price volatility, increasing agricultural productivity Improving functioning of energy markets Pursuing fight against climate change Reinforcing multilateral trading system Development: investing for global growth Fight against corruption Intensifying fight against corruption Governance G20 Summit closed with a Final Declaration. Cannes. 4 November 2011: „Building our common future: Renewed collective action for the benefit of all“

48 Discussion: Health policies and inequities
How to address inequities in access, affordability and coverage What are the issues in your country Advantages and disadvantages of either targeting or universal approaches In general In the health sector

49 References: Sabine Alkire 2011, Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative OPHI. OPHI – HDCA Summerschool 2011 Oxford Department of International Development. Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford. Michelle Bachelet Social protection floor for a fair and inclusive globalization. Report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet Convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO. ILO Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher Garroway Social cohesion - a useful framework for assessing social progress in fast growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based on Perspectives on Global Development Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD Development Centre Naila Kabeer, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund Gabriele Köhler, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy. April 2009: pp , Sage publications (have requested journal’s permission for access) Gabriele Köhler, Des Gasper, Richard Jolly, Mara Simane Deepening the MDGs: human security. Conference on MDGs beyond German Development Institute. Bonn. November UN. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination UN 1979 Convention on the Eradication of all Forms of Discrimation against Women, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Rethinking Poverty. Report on the World Social Situation United Nations, New York. UNDP Delivering On Commitments. UNDP in Action 2009/2010 UNICEF, Narrowing the gaps to meet the goals. Equity-focused approach to child survival and development. New York 7 September UN General Assembly. Declaration on the Right to Development. 4 December 1986, 97th plenary meeting.

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