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First Neutrino Oscillation Results from T2K Costas Andreopoulos STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab.

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Presentation on theme: "First Neutrino Oscillation Results from T2K Costas Andreopoulos STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Neutrino Oscillation Results from T2K Costas Andreopoulos STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab

2 Outline Neutrino oscillations The T2K experimental setup Experimental method & potential Data-taking operations SuperK event reduction First (2010) oscillation analysis with 3.23E+19 POT (Run1) data Methodology & results Prospects and summary

3 Neutrino Oscillations production detection mass-eigenstates propagation described by plane waves weak-interaction eigenstates

4 Neutrino oscillation (v α → v β ) probability mixing matrix elements (determined experimentally) squared neutrino mass splittings (determined experimentally) Experiments match L / E to a particular range of Δm 2

5 What do measure in neutrino oscillation experiments? 3 mixing angles, θ 12, θ 23, θ 13 1 CP violating phase δ with 3 neutrinos, any 2 squared mass splittings Δm 2

6 the atmosphere (SuperK, Soudan,,...)... the Sun (SNO, SuperK,...)... nuclear reactors (KamLAND,...)... accelerators (K2K, MINOS,...) Neutrino oscillations now firmly established studying neutrinos from... First age of neutrino-mixing exploration

7 Results from the first age of neutrino-mixing exploration ~ 3% ~ 4% ~ 6% ~ 14% “23” : LBL accelerator & atmospheric“12” : LBL reactor & solar“13” : LBL accelerator & SBL reactor (solar) (atmospheric)

8 Next big questions in neutrino physics... θ 13 non-zero? CP violation in the neutrino sector? θ 23 maximal? Mass hierarchy? Dirac or Majorana? Absolute mass scale? T2K

9 T2K Experiment Overview Super-Kamiokande 50 kton water-Cherenkov detector 280m detector suite 295 km J-PARC 30 GeV proton beam (design) power of 750 kW Almost pure v μ beam Peak at 600 MeV. L/E tuned to the `atmospheric' Δm 2 scale.

10 J-PARC facility (KEK / JAEA) 22/06/11 Neutrino beam to Kamioka 30 GeV Main Ring (8 bunches) RCS: 3 GeV synchrotron (2 bunches / 25 Hz) Linac Secondary beam Target area Near detector (280m) pit North ~5% 181 MeV Fast extraction 3.3E+14 p/spill cycle: ~0.3 Hz 8 bunches/spill bunch interval: 581 nsec bunch width: 58 nsec

11 The neutrino beam-line Decay volume Beam Axis π+π+ ν ν ND280 INGRID Super-K Target & Horns 2.5 o Muon Monitors Graphite rod diameter: 2.6 cm length: 91.4 cm (1.9 interaction length) Horns 320 kA 2.1 T max B field 1.5 m 2.0 m 2.5 m 96 m

12 The `off-axis' trick T2K is first accelerator neutrino experiment employing the `off-axis' trick. Exploit kinematical properties of pion decay to create a narrow neutrino beam peaked at a particular energy (chosen to maximise oscillation probability at the SuperK location) on-axis (0 deg)

13 Super-K (IV) Inner Detector (ID) Outer Detector (OD) 50 kt Water Cherenkov detector (22.5 kt fiducial mass) Overburden (shielding): 2700 mwe Inner detector: 11,129 20'' PMTs (40% photo-cathode coverage) Outer detector: 1,885 8'' PMTs DAQ: No dead-time Energy threshold: ~4.5 MeV height: 41.4 m

14 Water Cherenkov imaging v μ CC v e CC

15 First T2K neutrino event at SuperK

16 280m Near Detector complex

17 0 deg 2.5 deg ν On-axis near detector (INGRID) Monitor neutrino beam direction UA1 magnet Off-axis near detector (ND280) Neutrino flux spectrum characteristics Neutrino cross sections

18 Off-axis near detector (ND280) UA1 magnet (0.2 T) Upstream target region: Pi0 Detector (P0D) Optimised for pi0 measurement Downstream target region: Tracker Optimised for charged particles ν

19 Off-axis near detector (ND280) ν UA1 magnet (0.2 T) SMRD (Side Muon Range Detector) Scintillator planes in magnet yoke Veto + CR trigger + aid in momentum measurement P0D (π0 detector) Scintillator planes interleaved with lead and water layers 13 tons lead + 3 tons water Optimised for γ detection 2 FGDs (Fine Grained Detectors) Active target mass FGD1: 1.0 ton scintillator FGD2: 0.5 ton scintillator ton water 3 TPCs (Time Projection Chambers) Momentum measurement of charged particles PID via dE/dx Tracker P0D, Barrel and Downstream ECAL E/M showers from inner detector

20 ND280 off-axis detector event (in the Tracker) FGD TPC DSECAL CCQE

21 ND280 off-axis detector event (in the Tracker) FGD TPC DSECAL CC1π+

22 ND280 off-axis detector event (in the Tracker) FGD TPC DSECAL CC DIS

23 ND280 off-axis detector event (in the P0D) CC DIS

24 On-axis near detector (INGRID) 10 m x 10 m beam coverage ~700 neutrino interactions day at 50 kW Monitor neutrino beam direction Off-axis angle precision goal < 1 mrad 1 mrad → 2% SuperK flux change at peak energy Each module: 7 tons - alternating scintillator / iron planes 16 modules: 7 horizontal 7 vertical 2 off-cross

25 Measuring oscillation parameters at T2K - The `(v μ ) disappearance' channel - The `(v e ) appearance' channel

26 Oscillations with Δm 2 =2.4E-3 eV 2 /c 4, sin 2 2θ=1 Disappearance channel: Extracting sin 2 2θ 23 and Δm 2 23 No oscillation Δm 23 2 sin 2 2θ 23 Energy dependent depletion of muon-like events Looking for:

27 Disappearance channel: `Signal' process Determining the neutrino energy: Conservation of energy comes to the rescue Signal: v μ CCQE

28 v μ CC σ/E per nucleon for isoscalar target (no nuclear effects) v μ flux at SuperK CC1π CCQE total Signal Main bkg

29 Energy reconstruction for CCQE and non-CCQE

30 Cross sections – Survey of models v μ + C12 v μ CC1π+ v μ CCQE

31 Energy-dependent excess of electron-like events Looking for: Appearance channel: Extracting sin 2 2θ 13 Background: intrinsic beam contamination misidentified muon-neutrinos sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.1 Signal: v e CCQE

32 Appearance channel: Electron-neutrino beam contamination vμvμ veve

33 Signal: v e CCQE Background: v μ NCπ 0 Appearance channel: Muon neutrino background

34 v μ NC π 0 (coherent) cross sections – Survey of models v μ + C12

35 T2K ultimate (5 yrs x 750 kW) sensitivity v e appearance:v μ disappearance: 90% CL MINOS sin 2 2θ 13 < (90% CL) δ(sin 2 2θ 23 ) ~ 1E-2 (90% CL) δ(Δm 2 23 ) ~ 1E-4 eV 2 /c 4 (90% CL)

36 Data-taking operations & beam stability

37 T2K data-taking operations January 2010: Start of Run-1 February 24, 2010: First event seen in SuperK June 26, 2010: End of Run-1 November 16, 2010: Start of Run-2 December 25, 2010: Start of end-of-year shutdown January 20, 2011: End of end-of-year shutdown March 11, 2011: Earthquake July 1, 2011: Scheduled end of Run-2 Run-1 Run E+19 POT on tape! Additional 1.136E+20 POT on tape! Total on tape: 1.459E+20 POT Estimated total at end of Run-2 was ~3E+20 POT data-taking stopped

38 Number of protons delivered by MR summer shutdown Run-1 Run-2 Run-2 (Nov ?): 8 bunches / spill (~9E+13 PPP) 3.04 sec cycle kW stable operation Integrated (Run1+2) exposure (physics): 1.459E+20 POT Run-1 (Jan-Jun 2010): 6 bunches / spill (~3E+13 PPP) 3.52 sec cycle 50 kW stable operation 100 kW trials Integrated exposure (physics): 3.23E+19 POT

39 Primary proton beam monitoring p π μ ν Beam intensity / loss monitoring: 5 Current Transformers (CT) 50 Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) Beam position & profile monitoring: 21 Electro-static monitor (ESM) 19 Segmented Secondary Emission monitor (SSEM) 1 Optical Transition Radiation detector (OTR)

40 Secondary muon beam monitoring p π μ ν Secondary muon beam monitoring (MUMON) spill-by-spill. Beam direction is controlled within 1 mrad Secondary beam intensity stable to ~1% → Stability of targeting & focusing

41 Neutrino beam monitoring p π μ ν

42 T2K-SuperK event reduction

43 SuperK – Beam spill time synchronization Record all hits in +/- 500 μs window around the beam spill arrival to SuperK. GPS synchronization for J-PARC and SuperK times

44 SuperK live-time SuperK good spill selection SK DAQ alive DAQ error check Checking dark counts in ID and OD GPS error check Detector status check Pre-activity cut No activity in the 100 μs before beam arrival. Removes accidental contamination SuperK live fraction (for physics) > 99%

45 SuperK FC (fully contained) event reduction ODID Run-1 33 FC neutrino events candidates found Accidental bkg /

46 SuperK FC neutrino event candidate timing

47 FC events with more than 30 MeV visible energy SuperK FCFV event reduction Run-1: 23 FCFV neutrino event candidates found Fiducial volume (2m from ID wall) Accidental bkg / FC events * In fiducial volume (more than 2m away from the ID wall) * Visible energy > 30 MeV FC (Fully Contained) FV (Fiducial Volume) events used for physics analysis

48 2010 oscillation analysis with Run-1 (3.23E+19 POT) data Appearance analysis Disappearance analysis 23 FCFV events 1-ring multi-ring μ-like e-like

49 Analysis Flow (2010) Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data (CC inclusive) NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data Beam-line monitoring data xx ND280 MC (CC inclusive) shape vs normalization

50 Analysis Flow (2010) Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data (CC inclusive) NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data Beam-line monitoring data xx ND280 MC (CC inclusive) shape vs normalization Neutrino flux prediction

51 NA61 / SHINE experiment Large acceptance spectrometer 5 TPCs 2 dipole magnets 3 ToFs Good PID and momentum resolution 30 GeV p+C particle yields in thin target T2K replica target NA61: PID methods

52 NA61 / SHINE measurements Full coverage of T2K phase space 0-60 mrad mrad mrad mrad prelim 2007 thin target data

53 Neutrino flux tuning v μ at SuperK v e at SuperK

54 Neutrino flux uncertainties Dominant uncertainty: Low energies → Pion production High energies → Kaon production Further improvement anticipated with recent NA61 data

55 Analysis Flow (2010) Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data (CC inclusive) NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data Beam-line monitoring data xx ND280 MC (CC inclusive) shape vs normalization Constrain normalisation

56 ND280: Inclusive muon neutrino CC analysis No tracks in TPC-1 >= 1 track in TPC-2 with vertex in FGD-1 No tracks in TPC-2? Repeat with TPC-3 and FGD-2 Select track with highest momentum TPC dE/dx cuts to select muon candidates FGD 2 FGD 1 TPC 1 TPC 2TPC 3 DSECAL Robust analysis using low-level reconstructed objects (FGD hits and tracks in single TPC) High purity: ~90% v μ CC (~50% CCQE)

57 ND280: Inclusive muon-neutrino CC DSECAL (not a fit)

58 Analysis Flow (2010) Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data (CC inclusive) NA61 INGRID Beam-line monitoring data xx ND280 MC (CC inclusive) shape vs normalization

59 Muon neutrino disappearance

60 Muon-neutrino disappearance 1-ring muon-like sample: No oscillation expectation: ± 4.74 (stat) (syst) events Observed: 8 events A 2.5σ 1-ring muon-like event deficit Consistent with MINOS / K2K

61 Muon-neutrino disappearance prospects Run1 sensitivity Run1 + Run2 (already on tape) sensitivity MINOS-2011

62 Electron-neutrino appearance

63 SuperK electron-neutrino event selection 23 FCFV events visible energy > 100 MeV 1-ring ring has e-like PID 2 e-like 1-ring events accept

64 SuperK electron-like 1-ring events

65 Additional background reduction cuts - I No decay electron Misidentified v μ CC μ → e Misidentified NCπ π → μ → e accept 1 candidate rejected

66 SuperK rejected electron-neutrino candidate Initial neutrino eventDecay electron triggering SuperK 3.5 μs after the initial neutrino event

67 Additional background reduction cuts - II POLfit (forces 2 nd ring) reconstructed mass not π0-like Reconstructed neutrino energy < 1.25 GeV accept Reduces NC π0 background Reduces intrinsic beam contamination from Kaon decays (contributing > 1 GeV) v μ → v e, v μ flux peaks at 600 MeV

68 1 candidate e-like event was found SuperK electron-neutrino candidate

69 Expected number of events & systematics (Background-only hypothesis) Background only hypothesis: ± 24% total systematic error Background: 0.30 ± 0.07 (syst)

70 Expected number of events & systematics (Background + signal hypothesis) Background + signal hypothesis: ± 20% total systematic error Normal hierarchy

71 inverted hierarchy normal hierarchy Run-1 measurement (90% CL) Run-1 sensitivity (90% CL) MINOS 7E+20 POT T2K sensitivity (5yr x 750 kW) Run-1 measurement (90% CL) Run-1 sensitivity (90% CL) Excluded oscillation parameter region & sensitivity

72 Electron-neutrino appearance prospects MINOS This measurement (2010 / Run1) Data already on tape

73 Conclusions Reported oscillation results from an initial exposure of 3.23E+19 POT (Run1) Electron-neutrino appearance: Observed 1 single-ring electron-like event Background (θ 13 = 0) = 0.30 ± 0.07 Muon neutrino disappearance: Observed 8 single-ring muon-like events 2.5 σ deficit compared with null-hypothesis. Consistent with MINOS / K2K / SuperK-atm. In total 1.459E+20 (Run1+2) are currently on tape (estimate before quake was ~3E+20) Nevertheless Probably the best limit on electron-neutrino appearance A competitive result on muon neutrino disappearance 2011 analysis in progress Improvements: New results from NA61 Exclusive CCQE measurement in ND280 + spectral information; F/N extrapolation CC1π fraction constrain from ND280 NCπ0 and beam v e measurement from ND280

74 Back-up slides

75 T2K Collaboration

76

77

78 Electron-neutrino appearance systematics SuperK efficiency Cross- sections Flux ND280

79 Excluded oscillation parameter region & sensitivity normal hierarchy inverted hierarchy Run-1 measurement (90% CL) Run-1 sensitivity (90% CL) Run-1 measurement (90% CL) Run-1 sensitivity (90% CL)

80 SuperK event break-down Appearance analysis Disappearance analysis

81 atmospheric, long baseline accelerator short baseline reactor, long baseline accelerator long-baseline reactor, solar

82 v μ CCQE cross section – Survey of models σ(E) dσ(E,T μ )/dT μ v μ + C12

83 v μ CC1π cross section – Survey of models σ(E) dσ(E,T π )/dT π v μ + C12

84 Final State Interactions (FSI) vμ v μ N N N π π N N “signal” → “bkg” “bkg” → “signal” O16 v μ + C12, 1 GeV hadrons re-interacting hadrons escaping without re-interaction ~ 2/3 of hadrons re-interact!

85 FSI effect on final state topologies what we could see in a perfect detector what was generated inside the nucleus

86 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit

87 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response xx

88 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 neutrino flux measurement ND280→SuperK neutrino flux transfer function INGRID xx

89 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data Neutrino cross-sections ND280 detector response ND280 neutrino flux measurement ND280→SuperK neutrino flux transfer function INGRID // xx

90 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data Neutrino cross-sections ND280 detector response ND280 neutrino flux measurement ND280→SuperK neutrino flux transfer function NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data ND280 calibration & test- beam data Beam-line monitoring data // xx

91 Analysis Flow Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data Neutrino cross-sections ND280 detector response ND280 neutrino flux measurement ND280→SuperK neutrino flux transfer function NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data ND280 calibration & test- beam data Beam-line monitoring data // xx

92 Analysis Flow (2010) Oscillation measurement SuperK beam data SuperK prediction fit Neutrino flux simulation SuperK neutrino flux Neutrino cross-sections SuperK detector response ND280 beam data (CC inclusive) NA61 INGRID External cross-section measurements (neutrino, charged-lepton, hadron probes) SuperK atmo. neutrino & calibration data Beam-line monitoring data xx ND280 MC (CC inclusive) shape vs normalization 2010 Analysis: Simplicity of inputs & robustness !


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