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Ethology and Animal Behavior Chapter 24 Behavior – way a whole animal reacts to internal or external stimulus Through movements, postures, displays, eating,

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Presentation on theme: "Ethology and Animal Behavior Chapter 24 Behavior – way a whole animal reacts to internal or external stimulus Through movements, postures, displays, eating,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethology and Animal Behavior Chapter 24 Behavior – way a whole animal reacts to internal or external stimulus Through movements, postures, displays, eating, eliminating, mating, caregiving, sounds, smells, hiding, threatening, killing etc.

2 Behavior Varies among species Varies among members of same species Determines fitness – ability to survive and reproduce Determined by natural selection (at least in part)

3 Behavior Knowledge of behavior Important in determining proper management e.g. piglets nurse more frequently if recorded sounds of nursing piglets are played Human behavior follows many of the same patterns as animal behavior

4 Causes of Behavioral Responses in Animals Determined by heredity (internal factors) Determined by learning experiences (external factors)

5 Causes of Behavioral Responses in Animals Hereditary influences Breeds selected for certain behaviors e.g. horses selected for work, running, draft etc No one breed excels in all behaviors

6 Innate Behavioral Patterns Evidence that behavior has genetic basis Selection to develop breeds with unique behavior Animals show behavior pattern unique to their breed even if reared artificially Some behaviors segregate in Mendelian fashion (i.e. crossbreeding)

7 Innate Behavioral Patterns Thresholds Level of stimulus needed to display a behavior Some lines have very low threshold (e.g. fighting dogs will fight at small provocation)

8 Innate Behavioral Patterns Direct hereditary influences on behavior Heredity affects organ size and response Heredity affects enzymes and hormones Vary widely among lines different behaviors; animals can show only behaviors for which they have appropriate mechanisms

9 Experience and Learning Behavior based on instincts and reflexes Behavior expands or contracts from instinct due to experiences Habituation (e.g. adapt to environment) Animals develop habits quickly if experiences direct that development in a consistent manner

10 Experience and Learning Conditioning – two types: Classical conditioning (associative learning) response to previously neutral stimulus Pavlov’s dogs provided a sound whenever fed would start to salivate just from the sound Dairy cows start to “let down” milk just from being let into milking parlor

11 Experience and Learning Conditioning Operant conditioning (reward/punish) response to positive or negative reinforcement horse receives treat when performing a trick will do trick whenever offered the treat animals stay away from electric fence after shock experiences

12 Experience and Learning Insight learning (reasoning) Ability to respond correctly at a new experience Early malnutrition appears to interfere with reasoning ability

13 Experience and Learning Imprinting Newly hatched duckling will adopt any moving object as its parent Can be accomplished only very early in life

14 Intelligence Organization of behavior Varies widely between and within species Conventional wisdom is that mammals are more intelligent than non-mammals Order of mammalian intelligence Primates – monkeys, chimps, gorillas, humans Ocean mammals – whales, dolphins Carnivores – dogs, cats Ungulates – pigs, horses, cattle, sheep etc

15 Motivation Internal state of animal which drives it to behave a certain way Hypothalamus controls several types of behavior appetite sexual behavior

16 Animal Communication Sounds Animals will respond to call of distress from offspring from another member of their species Some species emit radar type sounds bats, dolphins

17 Animal Communication Chemicals Pheromones chemical substance that attracts others many species – pheromones used to attract mate Urine or feces used to “mark” territory

18 Animal Communication Visual displays Many birds – use wing or feather displays in courtship Many mammals – raise hair on neck when fearful Honeybees – workers use a dance to indicate food supply

19 Orientation Behavior (Homing) Many anecdotes About dogs, cats etc – find way home over long distance Salmon Hatched in freshwater stream Swim to ocean Return to same stream to spawn

20 Ingestive Behavior Eating and drinking First behavior – suckling Teeth pattern affects ingestion swine and horses have full set of teeth in both jaws ruminants – cattle, sheep, goats no upper front teeth

21 Ingestive Behavior Ruminant intake Food is taken in, chewed, swallowed Later is regurgitated and chewed again behavior is called “rumination” Grazing behavior affects forage and range management usually eat more tender parts first in overgrazing situation, more palatable plants may be eliminated

22 Ingestive Behavior Cattle spend 1/3 to ½ of time grazing Cattle graze at all hours of day Some more at daybreak, late afternoon, just before dark Nursing occurs both day and night most often at daybreak, midday and dusk

23 Ingestive Behavior Pigs born with tendency to root (dig in soil) Will root less if fed well-balanced diet If fed a grain and protein supplement separately Pigs will come close to balancing their own diet

24 Eliminative Behavior Some animals deposit feces randomly Other animals follow a pattern Farm animals tend to behave in this area like their wild ancestors

25 Eliminative Behavior Cattle defecate randomly Will lie in feces Will avoid eating plants near fecal deposits Cattle usually urinate randomly Sheep follow similar pattern as cattle

26 Eliminative Behavior Swine are thought by many to be unclean Swine actually very clean animals Usually deposit feces in a corner Frequently deposit feces near source of water Proper design of swine pens will promote regular patterns of defecation and urination

27 Eliminative Behavior Horses will return to a single place for defecation Poultry defecate at random, except heavy in roosting place Cats bury feces Dogs tend to defecate in specific places

28 Shelter-Seeking Behavior Reasons to seek shelter Protection from: sun wind rain predators insects

29 Shelter-Seeking Behavior Behavior prior to storms Cattle will descend from high mountain pastures just prior to a storm Cattle will seek shade during heat of day Cows will congregate around water at same time each day

30 Shelter-Seeking Behavior Swine seek shade or wallow in water when hot Need for evaporative cooling Swine will sleep huddled together when cold Cattle, horses sheep will turn away from storm Bison face into a storm

31 Agonistic (Fighting) Behavior Involves: Threat Aggression Submission Escape Passivity

32 Agonistic (Fighting) Behavior Intact males will fight for mating rights Castrated males tend to be docile Boars, bulls, rams, stallions that run together from young age seldom fight Dominance order already established In large range herds with many bulls Bulls will graze together at times with no cows around

33 Agonistic (Fighting) Behavior First introduction of sexually mature males Almost always results in a fight Serious injuries, seldom death, may occur Some breeds of cattle have been selected for fighting behavior

34 Sexual Behavior Comprises courtship and mating Important because necessary to continue species Males are highly efficient at detecting estrus (time of mating receptivity) in females Estrus in females also called “heat”

35 Sexual Behavior Estrus (heat) in females Sow stands still from person placing hand on rump Mare will squeal and urinate in presence of others Mares and ewes do not seek males as much as other species Cows and sows will let other females mount

36 Sexual Behavior Males detect female estrus by sight and smell Stallion will bite and tease the female Boar will nudge the sow around shoulders Rooster will spread one wing to ground and perform a mating dance

37 Mother-Young Behavior Maternal behavior begins at parturition (time of birth) and continues to weaning Cows giving birth Will seek seclusion, usually in a depression or trees Cow will inspect calf and lick it clean Calf stands and starts to nurse after ~ 1 hour Cow eats the placenta (so as to not alert predators) Cow and calf rejoin herd after 2-4 days

38 Mother-Young Behavior Cow is very possessive throughout nursing period Will come to rescue calf very quickly Cows identify young primarily by smell Sight and sound also contribute to identification Time of calf removal in beef herds is very noisy Dairy herds – calf is separated in a few days

39 Mother-Young Behavior Sows build nest ~ 18 hours before birth Time of farrowing - ~ 4 hours A few sows become agitated and kill piglets Crossfostering is possible within first few days Frequently each piglet adopts a single teat

40 Mother-Young Behavior Sheep behave similarly to cattle in many way around birth Ewes will accept orphan goats to nurse Mares also behave in a similar manner Mule foals receive as much attention as horse foals

41 Investigative (Exploratory) Behavior Exploration through: Seeing Hearing Smelling Taste Touch

42 Investigative (Exploratory) Behavior Most farm animals appear curious Will advance on new object looking, listening and smelling Sheep tend to be more timid than cattle or swine Will try to return to “flight zone” or area of normal comfort if startled

43 Gregarious Behavior Species and breeds vary in terms of “flocking” instinct Breeds developed in lush areas tend to be gregarious (stay together in groups) Breeds developed in harsh areas tend to spread out more

44 Gregarious Behavior Sheep - particularly strong gregarious behavior Sheep also follow a leader “Judas” goat – goat used to lead lambs to desired location at a market place Swine are gregarious – modern production practices limit the behavior Horses also run in “bands” – useful in training a team for draft purposes

45 Social Dominance Well organized social rank order Prominent in many farm species Most obvious when species tends to fight or when resources are limited Especially evident in chickens hens will fight to establish the “peck” order roosters assume dominance during laying season

46 Social Dominance Advantage – gives mating preference to strongest males (important for sustaining genetic merit for strength in a species) Disadvantage – weaker individuals are sometimes deprived of food if it is limited Genetic contribution – appears to be moderately heritable

47 Population Density and Animal Behavior Population density in an area is fairly constant in many wild species Regulators of population size Predation Starvation Accidents Parasites Disease

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