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End Show Slide 1 of 40 Understanding Viruses Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall.

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1 End Show Slide 1 of 40 Understanding Viruses Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

2 Viruses

3 What Is a Virus? Viruses are particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids. Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells.

4 Viruses differ widely in terms of size and structure. All viruses enter living cells and use the infected cell to produce more viruses.

5 Head Tail sheath DNA T4 Bacteriophage Tobacco Mosaic Virus Influenza Virus RNA Membrane envelope Tail fiber RNA Capsid proteins Capsid Surface proteins

6 A typical virus is composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, called a capsid Capsid

7 Capsid proteins bind to receptors on the cell surface and “trick” the cell into allowing it inside. Once inside, viral genes are expressed and the cell transcribes and translates them into viral capsid proteins. The host cell may makes copies of the virus, and be destroyed.

8 Most viruses are highly specific to the cells they infect. Viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages.

9 Once the virus is inside the host cell, two different processes may occur. Some viruses replicate immediately, killing the host cell. Others replicate, but do not kill the host cell immediately. Viral Infection

10 Bacteriophage injects DNA into bacterium Bacteriophage DNA forms a circle Lytic Infection Lysogenic Infection

11 In a lytic infection, a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst. Lytic Infection

12 First, the bacteriophage injects DNA into a bacterium. The bacteriophage DNA forms a circle.

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16 Lysogenic Infection Other viruses cause lysogenic infections in which a host cell makes copies of the virus indefinitely. In a lysogenic infection, a virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell's DNA.

17 A lysogenic infection begins the same way as a lytic infection. The bacteriophage injects DNA into a bacterium. The bacteriophage DNA forms a circle. The viral DNA embedded in the host's DNA is called a prophage.

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22 Retroviruses Retroviruses contain RNA as their genetic information. When retroviruses infect cells, they make a DNA copy of their RNA. This DNA is inserted into the DNA of the host cell.

23 A retrovirus’ genetic information is copied backward—from RNA to DNA. The virus that causes AIDS is a retrovirus.

24 Viruses must infect a living cell in order to grow and reproduce. They take advantage of the host’s respiration, nutrition, and all other functions of living things. Viruses and Living Cells

25 Viruses have many of the characteristics of living things. After infecting living cells, viruses can reproduce, regulate gene expression, and even evolve.

26 Because viruses are dependent on living things, it seems likely that viruses developed after living cells. The first viruses may have evolved from genetic material of living cells. Viruses have continued to evolve over billions of years.

27 A vaccine is a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens. When injected into the body, a vaccine may prompt the body’s immunity to the disease. Immunity is the body's ability to destroy new pathogens.

28 If infection occurs, drugs can be used to destroy bacteria. Antibiotics are compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria. A reason for increased human life expectancy is an increased understanding of how to prevent and cure bacterial infections. Proper hand washing with ordinary soap removes most bacteria.

29 There are various methods used to control bacterial growth, including: sterilization disinfectants food processing

30 Viruses produce disease by disrupting the body's normal equilibrium. What do viruses do in your body?

31 Viruses can attack and destroy certain cells in the body, causing symptoms of the disease. Other viruses cause infected cells to change patterns of growth and development.

32 Viral diseases cannot be treated with antibiotics. Vaccines are often the best protection against most diseases. Most vaccines work only if used before an infection begins. Symptoms may be treated with over-the-counter OTC medicines.

33 End Show Slide 33 of 40 What is an antigen? Antigen any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

34 End Show Slide 34 of 40 Antibodies are proteins generally found in the blood that detect and destroy invaders, like bacteria and viruses. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What are antibodies?

35 End Show Slide 35 of 40 Immunology focuses on the human body's built-in defense system. In a healthy person, the immune system helps the body fight infection by viruses and bacteria. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What is immunology?

36 End Show Slide 36 of 40 The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What is immune system?

37 End Show Slide 37 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall DNA Viruses Hepatitis B Herpes virus Small Pox Papillomavirus

38 End Show Slide 38 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall RNA Viruses Rotavirus Rubella Poliovirus Influenza Mumps Measles Rhinovirus (Common cold) Ebola Dengue Hepatitis C West Nile

39 Viral Diseases

40 End Show Slide 40 of 40 RNA viruses generally have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses due to a higher error-rate when replicating. In contrast, DNA viruses generally have larger genomes due to the high fidelity of their replication enzymes. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Difference between DNA & RNA Viruses

41 Viruses produce serious animal diseases including foot-and- mouth disease. Many viruses infect plants. These viruses pose a serious threat to many crops. Viral Disease in Plants and Animals

42 Other viruslike particles that can cause disease are viroids and prions. Viroids cause disease in plants. Prions cause disease in animals. Viroids and Prions

43 Viroids are single-stranded RNA molecules that have no surrounding capsids. Viroids enter an infected cell and synthesize new viroids. They then disrupt the cell’s metabolism and stunt the growth of the entire plant. What are viroids?

44 Prions contain only protein—no DNA or RNA. Prions cause disease by forming protein clumps. These clumps induce normal protein molecules to become prions. Eventually, there are so many prions in the nerve tissue that cells become damaged. Mad cow disease may be caused by prions.

45 End Show Slide 45 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Blood tests to check for antibodies to viruses, or for the antigens themselves. Cultures for samples of blood, bodily fluid, or other material taken from the infected area. Spinal tap to examine the cerebrospinal fluid. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques may be used to make many copies of the viral genetic material, enabling doctors to rapidly and accurately identify the virus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect increased swelling in the temporal lobes Various Diagnostic Tests for Viral Infections

46 Chapter 19- Viruses Multiple Choice Practice Questions

47 19–2 Viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information are known as a.prions. b.oncoviruses. c.retroviruses. d.bacteriophage.

48 19–2 Viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information are known as a.prions. b.oncoviruses. c.retroviruses. d.bacteriophage.

49 19–2 The first type of virus to be studied was the a.bacteriophage. b.tobacco mosaic virus. c.influenza virus. d.AIDS virus.

50 19–2 The first type of virus to be studied was the a.bacteriophage. b.tobacco mosaic virus. c.influenza virus. d.AIDS virus.

51 19–2 Which of the following statements about viruses is true? a.Viruses appear similar to bacteria when studied with a light microscope. b.Viruses display the essential characteristics of living things. c.Viruses can reproduce independently if they contain DNA. d.Viruses cannot reproduce unless they infect a living cell.

52 19–2 Which of the following statements about viruses is true? a.Viruses appear similar to bacteria when studied with a light microscope. b.Viruses display the essential characteristics of living things. c.Viruses can reproduce independently if they contain DNA. d.Viruses cannot reproduce unless they infect a living cell.

53 19–2 A virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell but remains inactive for a while in a.a lytic infection. b.a lysogenic infection. c.neither a lytic nor a lysogenic infection. d.retroviral infection.

54 19–2 A virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell but remains inactive for a while in a.a lytic infection. b.a lysogenic infection. c.neither a lytic nor a lysogenic infection. d.retroviral infection.

55 19–2 Retroviruses are considered unique because a.they have RNA in their capsid and not DNA. b.they have DNA in their capsid and not RNA. c.after infection of a host cell, their RNA makes DNA. d.after infection of a host cell, their DNA makes RNA.

56 19–2 Retroviruses are considered unique because a.they have RNA in their capsid and not DNA. b.they have DNA in their capsid and not RNA. c.after infection of a host cell, their RNA makes DNA. d.after infection of a host cell, their DNA makes RNA.

57 19–3 Which of the following diseases is transmitted by a mosquito bite? a.influenza b.measles c.West Nile virus d.chickenpox

58 19–3 Which of the following diseases is transmitted by a mosquito bite? a.influenza b.measles c.West Nile virus d.chickenpox

59 19–3 Which of the following diseases is thought to be caused by prions? a.diphtheria b.mad cow disease c.tuberculosis d.smallpox

60 19–3 Which of the following diseases is thought to be caused by prions? a.diphtheria b.mad cow disease c.tuberculosis d.smallpox

61 19–3 The best way to combat viral diseases is a.to use antibiotics. b.to treat individual symptoms. c.to use preventive vaccines. d.to let the disease “cure itself.”

62 19–3 The best way to combat viral diseases is a.to use antibiotics. b.to treat individual symptoms. c.to use preventive vaccines. d.to let the disease “cure itself.”


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