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Practical Skills: Paraphrasing Beth Oyler Writing Instructor and Webinar Coordinator Walden Writing Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Practical Skills: Paraphrasing Beth Oyler Writing Instructor and Webinar Coordinator Walden Writing Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Practical Skills: Paraphrasing Beth Oyler Writing Instructor and Webinar Coordinator Walden Writing Center

2 Housekeeping Muting Questions Tech trouble? Recording and PowerPoint slides: Captioning

3 Objectives Define paraphrasing and its importanceCompare quoting and paraphrasingIdentify strategies for paraphrasingApply strategies in paraphrasing practice

4 Paraphrasing: What it is and why it matters Presents key points of an author’s idea(s) in a new way Uses your own words and sentence structure Definition Gives you deeper understanding of source and topic Shows critical thinking Importance

5 Paraphrasing: One form of evidence Quotation Identical to original Narrow (1+ lines) Cited Quotation marks Author/year Page/paragraph # Paraphrase Your own words & sentence structure Shorter than original Narrow Cited Author/year

6 Paraphrasing: Strategies for practice Read passage until you understand its meaning Consider context of assignment: What will you do with this evidence? Look away from passage to write main points of what you read Cite source in your paraphrase

7 Paraphrasing: Example “The levels of breast and cervical cancer screening in Nebraska primary care remain suboptimal despite awareness of their importance, and despite implementation of the Every Woman Matters program to assist low-income women. The GAPS model was used to develop a practice-based intervention to identify and reduce barriers to delivery of breast and cervical cancer screening services.” (Backer et al., 2005, p. 405) Although the Every Woman Matters program has be implemented, women are still not taking advantage of screenings in Nebraska (Backer et al., 2005). To help solve this issue, Backer et al. (2005) used the GAPS model to improve the use of cancer screenings.

8 Questions?

9 Paraphrasing: Practice exercises Read each passage.Write your paraphrase. Type or copy your paraphrase into the Q&A box.

10 Paraphrasing: Popular Source “Stressful life events can cause insomnia, too. But if people become overly fixated on their inability to sleep, it leads to hours in bed trying to force sleep to come, which, in turn, causes anxiety and arousal. Over time, this pattern can become ingrained so that the insomnia persists long after the original stressor has passed. If you can’t sleep, relocate to another room to do something relaxing like reading until you feel sleepy… Not including over-the-counter sleeping pills, Americans received prescriptions for over 60 million hypnotic medications in 2011, according to IMS Health which tracks healthcare statistics. Side effects of these sleeping pills include next-day drowsiness, dependence, and loss of efficacy over time. … If a self-help approach does not do the trick, a sleep expert can guide you through a non-pharmacological program called cognitive behavioral therapy that studies show is as effective as prescription hypnotics in treating chronic insomnia.” (Mosko, 2013, para. 9-10) 1.Read passage until you understand its meaning. 2.Choose an idea(s) to focus on. 3.Look away from passage to write its main points. 4.Cite source in your paraphrase.

11 Paraphrasing: Popular Source “Stressful life events can cause insomnia, too. But if people become overly fixated on their inability to sleep, it leads to hours in bed trying to force sleep to come, which, in turn, causes anxiety and arousal. Over time, this pattern can become ingrained so that the insomnia persists long after the original stressor has passed. If you can’t sleep, relocate to another room to do something relaxing like reading until you feel sleepy. … Not including over-the-counter sleeping pills, Americans received prescriptions for over 60 million hypnotic medications in 2011, according to IMS Health which tracks healthcare statistics. Side effects of these sleeping pills include next-day drowsiness, dependence, and loss of efficacy over time. … If a self-help approach does not do the trick, a sleep expert can guide you through a non-pharmacological program called cognitive behavioral therapy that studies show is as effective as prescription hypnotics in treating chronic insomnia.” (Mosko, 2013, para. 9-10) Paraphrase A: Insomnia can become like a habit that stays with people over time, particularly if a person continually fails to fall asleep immediately (Mosko, 2013). If a habit of insomnia does develop, people have multiple options. One option is sleeping pills, but these types of medications have various negative side effects (Mosko, 2013). A person can also pursue behavioral therapy using a sleep expert (Mosko, 2013).

12 Popular Source Comparison Paraphrase A Insomnia can become like a habit that stays with people over time, particularly if a person continually fails to fall asleep immediately (Mosko, 2013). If a habit of insomnia does develop, people have multiple options. One option is sleeping pills, but these types of medications have various negative side effects (Mosko, 2013). A person can also pursue behavioral therapy using a sleep expert (Mosko, 2013). Paraphrase B Recognizing that stress can trigger insomnia, Mosko (2013) advised against using prescription drugs to address the condition. Instead, people experiencing insomnia should make behavioral changes, such as leaving bed to read in another room or taking part in therapy programs, to return to restful sleep.

13 Paraphrasing: Scholarly Source 1 “Prevention can be categorized into three components. Primary prevention is concerned with health promotion activities, which prevent the actual occurrence of a specific illness or disease. Secondary prevention promotes early detection or screening and treatment of disease and limitation of disability. This level of prevention is also called health maintenance. Tertiary prevention is directed at recovery or rehabilitation of a disease or conditions after the disease has developed. Physical activity, as one the most important components of cardiovascular disease prevention, has crucial roles at all three levels. Despite the strong evidence linking physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk reduction, there remains much uncertainty regarding the underlying mechanisms.” (Golbidi & Laher, 2012, pp. 1-2) 1.Read passage until you understand its meaning. 2.Choose an idea(s) to focus on. 3.Look away from passage to write its main points. 4.Cite source in your paraphrase.

14 Paraphrasing: Scholarly Source 1 Paraphrase A: Prevention of cardiovascular disease can be discussed as having three facets: health promotion activities, early detection and treatment, and recovery (Golbidi & Laher, 2012). Although it is not fully understood yet, physical activity is the clearest path to prevention (Golbidi & Laher, 2012). “Prevention can be categorized into three components. Primary prevention is concerned with health promotion activities, which prevent the actual occurrence of a specific illness or disease. Secondary prevention promotes early detection or screening and treatment of disease and limitation of disability. This level of prevention is also called health maintenance. Tertiary prevention is directed at recovery or rehabilitation of a disease or conditions after the disease has developed. Physical activity, as one the most important components of cardiovascular disease prevention, has crucial roles at all three levels. Despite the strong evidence linking physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk reduction, there remains much uncertainty regarding the underlying mechanisms.” (Golbidi & Laher, 2012, pp. 1-2)

15 Scholarly Source 1 Comparison Paraphrase A Prevention of cardiovascular disease can be discussed as having three facets: health promotion activities, early detection and treatment, and recovery (Golbidi & Laher, 2012). Although it is not fully understood yet, physical activity is the clearest path to prevention (Golbidi & Laher, 2012). Paraphrase B Golbidi and Laher (2012) described three approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease: (a) acting in healthy ways to prevent the disease, (b) diagnosing and managing the disease in its early stages, and (c) recovering after disease advancement. Although exercise plays an important role in these approaches, researchers do not yet know the full extent of that role.

16 Paraphrasing: Scholarly Source 2 “Through collaboration experiences, pre-service teachers also acknowledged the importance of applying their knowledge about educational technology in authentic settings (e.g., Cuckle and Clarke, 2002 and Tearle and Golder, 2008). According to Angeli and Valanides (2009), collaboration with peers appeared to provide a low threatening learning environment for pre-service teachers that can reduce anxiety and failure avoidance. In this respect, Clift et al. (2001) concluded that programme designers should deliberately create experiences in which pre-service teachers share their attitudes and abilities with one another. These types of engaging experiences lead pre-service teachers to a better understanding of the link between theories and teaching practices (Sang et al., 2010). At the same time, the pre-service teachers’ qualitative comments indicate that on-going and process-oriented feedback of experts were beneficial to building their abilities to use technology in the classroom (Angeli and Valanides, 2009 and O’Reilly, 2003).” (Tondeur et al., 2012, p. 142) 1.Read passage until you understand its meaning. 2.Choose a thesis to paraphrase for. 3.Look away from passage to write its main points. 4.Cite source in your paraphrase. Theses: A.Teachers’ use of technology may be improved by more collaboration. B.Teachers’ use of technology may be improved through more in-depth feedback.

17 Writing Center Resources Effective Paraphrasing (webpage)webpage “A Lesson in Time Management—Oh Yeah, and Paraphrasing” (blog entry)blog entry

18 Questions Now: Type into the Question box Later: Didn’t get to your question? Enter it in the survey after the webinar closes. Anytime:

19 References Backer, E. L., Geske, J. A., McIlvain, H. E., Dodendorf, D. M., & Minier, W. C. (2005). Improving female preventive health care delivery through practice change: An every woman matters study. JABFM, 18(5), doi: /jabfm Golbidi, S., & Laher, I. (2012). Review article: Exercise and the cardiovascular system. Cardiology Research and Practice, 2012, doi: /2012/ Mosko, S. (2013, May/June). Beyond counting sheep: The do’s and don’ts of natural sleep. E: The Environmental Magazine, 24(3). Retrieved from Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers and Education, 59, doi: /j.compedu


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