Presentation on theme: "The Social Self I. What is the self-concept? James, Cooley, Mead"— Presentation transcript:
1The Social Self I. What is the self-concept? James, Cooley, Mead Self-schemasII. Social ContextImmediate ContextSocio-cultural Context (broader context)Sensitivity to Context (Self-monitoring)III. Self-enhancement Mechanisms
2Theories of the SelfWilliam James (1890): A person has "as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry an image of him in their minds."Charles Cooley (1902): Views of self reflect the standpoints of significant others in our lives ("looking glass self")George Herbert Mead (1934): We imagine the perspectives of others and incorporate these into our self views -- and that this occurs continuously as we interact with others on an ongoing, moment to moment basis.
4Self-schemasSelf-schema (Markus): A set of well-elaborated knowledge about the self that guides the processing of self-relevant information and is based on past social experiences
5Self-schemas Schema in domain of independence Schematic: Very self-descriptive and important/central to your view of selfAschematic: Not highly descriptive and not highly important
6Self-schemas--Schematics faster than aschematics to endorse as self-descriptive words in schematic domain (e.g., independence)--Schematics resist evidence contradicting their view of themselves in the schematic domain.
7Spontaneous self-concept Spontaneous self-concept (McGuire): Specific aspects of self that are triggered by the features of the current situation. (Ex: Saying “I’m a brunette” in a room where everyone else is blond.)
8Self-awareness Theory Self-awareness theory (Duval & Wicklund): The theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior.
9Self-awareness Theory Trick-or-treat studyIV: Mirror present or notDV: How much candy taken by trick or treatersResults:
10Self-awareness theory Self-focus is associated with:--a drop in self-esteem (probably because comparing self with a social standard)--behaving in line with socially desirable standards
11The self is socialThe way we develop our self-conceptions depends in part on our interactions with others.The immediate situational context (which often includes other people) can affect how we see ourselves at any given point in time.
12Broad Social Context: Culture and the Self “The squeaky wheel gets the grease.”The nail that stands out gets pounded down.”
13Culture and the Self Markus & Kitayama Independent self-view: Define self in terms of own thoughts, feelings, and actions; emphasize uniqueness from others. (individualistic Western)Interdependent self-view: Define self in terms of one’s relationships to others; emphasize connectedness to others (collectivistic Asian and Third World cultures).
15What is the self? The self-concept is complex and multifaceted. Universe of self-conceptions: All of the ways in which you might see yourself (actual self, hoped for self, ideal self, etc.)Working self-concept: Includes core self-conceptions along with less central self-conceptions that may vary depending on the situational context.
16Self-esteemSelf-esteem: Global positive or negative feelings about the self.Attributions about exam grades when succeed or fail:Degree to which score reflects:Your abilitySituation (test was too hard)
17Mechanisms of self-enhancement Downward social comparisons: Comparing ourselves to people who are worse off than we are on a particular trait or ability.Why?What did Shelley Taylor find in her research w/breast cancer patients?
18Self-evaluation Maintenance Theory (SEM) Cannot always use downward comparisonSEM: Sometimes one’s view of self is threatened by another person’s behavior, and the degree of threat depends on the closeness of the relationship to the other person and relevance of the behavior.Abraham Tesser’s research: What happens when we compare ourselves with someone close to us? [Video clip]
19BIRGingBasking in reflected glory: Increasing self-esteem by associating with others who are successful (BIRGing)
20BIRGing Cialdini et al. (1976) Monday morning after football games, college students (from Arizona State, Louisiana State, Notre Dame, Michigan, Ohio State, etc.) more likely to wear school sweatshirts when team won on the previous Sat. & larger the victory, the more shirts worn.IV: General knowledge test. ½ success, ½ failure feedbackDV: Describe outcome of recent football game.Results:
21Self-handicapping Berglas & Jones (1978) Cover: “Drugs and intellectual performance”Independent variable: Solvable or unsolvable problemsDependent variable: Choice of DrugDrug A: Helps intellectual performanceDrug B: Inhibits intellectual performance