Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

McRT-Malloc: A Scalable Non-Blocking Transaction Aware Memory Allocator Ali Adl-Tabatabai Ben Hertzberg Rick Hudson Bratin Saha.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "McRT-Malloc: A Scalable Non-Blocking Transaction Aware Memory Allocator Ali Adl-Tabatabai Ben Hertzberg Rick Hudson Bratin Saha."— Presentation transcript:

1 McRT-Malloc: A Scalable Non-Blocking Transaction Aware Memory Allocator Ali Adl-Tabatabai Ben Hertzberg Rick Hudson Bratin Saha

2 2 Goals of McRT-Malloc Scalable Performance linear to # of processors then flat as you add more SW threads Preemption safety Implies a lock free approach to all structures Allows other scalable McRT algorithms to use malloc and remain scalable Transactional memory awareness Avoid memory blowup within transaction Avoid freeing of bits needed to validate other transactions Enable a object level conflict detection in STM Best of class

3 3 Block Data Structure Heap divided into aligned 16K blocks 18 significant bits Block Owned by a single thread during allocation Blocks segregated into bins according to objects size Meta data header –Free Lists –Bump Pointer –Next/Previous Block –Object size and usage info No per object Headers Free blocks on non-blocking LIFO queue –46 bit for update timestamp 0xABCD0000 0xABCD0040 0xABCD4000 Meta data Header...... Object Pointer

4 4 Object Allocation and Freeing Thread owns block they allocate in Trick - Free uses two linked free lists per block Private free list for block owner avoids atomic instructions Public list for other threads use atomic instruction and non- blocking algorithm Trick - Fresh block uses frontier pointer to avoid free list initialization Then allocates from private free list Privatize entire public list as needed with atomic xchg

5 5 McRT-Malloc: A Transaction Aware Memory Allocator Three problems 1. Speculative memory allocation and de-allocation inside transactions can cause space blowup 2. Transactional conflict detection and frees 3. Object-based conflict detection in C/C++ Garbage collection also solves these issues

6 6 Allocation with STM Speculatively allocate or free inside transaction Valid at commit - rolled back on abort Balanced – both malloc and free within transaction Memory is transaction-local must be reused to prevent memory blowup transaction { for (i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4043685/slides/slide_6.jpg", "name": "6 Allocation with STM Speculatively allocate or free inside transaction Valid at commit - rolled back on abort Balanced – both malloc and free within transaction Memory is transaction-local must be reused to prevent memory blowup transaction { for (i=0; i

7 7 Solution Use sequence numbers to track allocation relationships Sequence counter per-thread (thread-local) Every transaction (even nested) takes a new (incremented) sequence number upon start Every allocation in the transaction is tagged with its sequence number The relationship of an object being freed in a given transaction is determined by sequence number: seq(object) < seq(transaction) → speculative free seq(object) == seq(transaction) → balanced free

8 8 Monitors != Transactions STM uses bits in object to validate at commit Pessimistically monitors (locks) allow only one thread inside a critical section Optimistically transactions allow multiple threads inside a critical section This causes problems freeing an object

9 9 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} Thread 1 Deleting node 2 Thread 2 Deleting node 3

10 10 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */}

11 11 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} At this point you have read / read (non) conflict

12 12 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} Now we have a read / write conflict Thread 1 commits and thread two will abort

13 13 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate & end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate & end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} STM Version information needed for validation is destroyed along with object 2

14 14 nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} Thread two wakes up

15 15 The bits thread 2 are relying on to detect and resolve conflict by aborting are now garbage nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */} nodeDelete(int key) { ptr = head of list; ptr = head of list; transaction { transaction { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { while( ptr->next->key != key ) { ptr = ptr->next; ptr = ptr->next; } } /* end while */ temp = ptr->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; ptr->next = ptr->next->next; } /* validate &end transaction */ } /* validate & end transaction */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */ free(temp); /* Anyone using? */}

16 16 Solution Delay the actual free and reuse until in a consistent state A global epoch (timestamp) is maintained and incremented periodically Each thread locally remembers the global epoch of the last time it entered or exited a top level transaction Set as part of TransactionBegin and TransactionAbort/Commit Each free and global epoch noted in a thread local buffer When the buffer fills each thread’s epoch is queried All frees before the minimum epoch are freed “for real” O(number of frees) not O(number of memory accesses)

17 17 McRT-Malloc Beats Hoard Machias Benchmark Mimics the consumer producer pattern with minimal work load (Normalized so X axis indicates linear scaling)

18 18 McRT STM Malloc Running Machias

19 19 McRT STM vs. McRT Malloc Running Machias

20 20 McRT STM vs. McRT Malloc Memory Usage Running Machias

21 21 Conclusion Best of class scalable malloc implementation Non-blocking to enable other McRT algorithms to be non-blocking and still use malloc Solved memory blowup within a transaction Solved premature freeing problem for STM with optimistic concurrency Enabled object granularity conflict detection in C

22 22 Questions


Download ppt "McRT-Malloc: A Scalable Non-Blocking Transaction Aware Memory Allocator Ali Adl-Tabatabai Ben Hertzberg Rick Hudson Bratin Saha."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google