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Early History of Cinema Presentation by Chris Schloemp Information by Tim Dirks

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Presentation on theme: "Early History of Cinema Presentation by Chris Schloemp Information by Tim Dirks"— Presentation transcript:


2 Early History of Cinema Presentation by Chris Schloemp Information by Tim Dirks

3 z1891--William Dickson, an assistant to Thomas Edison designs Kinetoscope z1892--Kinetograph, camera with sprocket system z1893--”Black Maria”, first film studio in New Jersey z1894--Fred Ott’s Sneeze z1896--The Kiss The Birth of Cinema


5 The Lumiere Brothers zLouis and Auguste zInspired by Edison zCinematographe--could project to many spectators zDecember 28, 1895--first commercial exhibition of a projected motion picture to a paying public in the world’s first movie theater


7 Lumiere Films zLa Sortie des Ouviers de L’Usine Lumiere (Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory) zL’Arroseur Arrose (The Sprinkler Sprinkled) zThe Arrival of a Train zShort, slice-of-life documentaries

8 Georges Melies zSet up Europe’s first film studio in 1897 z1902--Le Voyage Dans la Lune (Trip to the Moon) zPioneer in illusion and fantasy: trick photography, dissolves, wipes, trick sets, stop-motion, slow-motion, and fadeouts

9 Further US Development zEdison Company, Biograph, American Vitagraph Company zEdwin Porter, first American documentary: The Life of an American Fireman (1903) z1903--Porter directs The Great Train Robbery

10 Great Milestones z First narrative film with storyline z First film shot out of sequence z First use of cross- cutting z First Western z First smash hit

11 Nickelodeons zSpend an evening at the cinema for a nickel zFirst nickelodeon in Pittsburgh, 1905 zCheap entertainment for the working class

12 D.W. Griffith: Early Pioneer z“Father of Film”--first cinematic storyteller zJoined Biograph in 1908, made 60 films in 1909 zCreated modern language of cinema: composed shots, camera movement, split screen, flashbacks, dissolves, lens filters, and artificial lighting

13 The Motion Picture Patents Company z1908--East-Coast companies formed MPPC to monopolize the growing industry zProtected profits, limited artistic freedom, fought movie piracy, reduced power of distributors zRefused to give screen credit to players zSigned contract with George Eastman for exclusive right to his famed film stock

14 IMP and Universal zMPPC fought by the independents, led by Carl Laemmle zFounded Independent Moving Pictures (IMP) z1911--IMP acquires first studio in Hollywood (later Universal) z1913--Traffic in Souls, about white slavery

15 East Coast vs. West Coast zLaemmle encouraged US government to bring anti-trust suit against MPPC z1907--first film shot in Los Angeles z1911--Nestor Company becomes first West Coast motion picture studio z1912--15 film companies operating in Hollywood z1917--Supreme Court disbands MPPC


17 Vitagraph zEarly 1900s, major competitor with Edison zBecame known for filming historical events: Roosevelt’s charge up San Juan Hill, the Boer War in South Africa, the Galveston flood of 1900, McKinley’s assassination in 1901, and the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 zEventually absorbed in Warner Bros. in 1925

18 Carl Laemmle and Universal zFounder of IMP and Universal zCinema taken over by entrepreneurs zResponsible for creating the “star system” zActors now earned screen credits zFlorence Lawrence and Mary Pickford first movie stars, under Laemmle

19 Fan Magazines zPhotoplay, first true fan magazine debuted in 1911 zGave rise to the idea of celebrity culture zInterviews and gossip columns about personal lives of stars

20 Serials zFilms released in episodic installments extremely popular in period before WWI zDeath-defying stunts, speedy plots, sensationalism, nice-girl leads in distress z1914--The Perils of Pauline z1914--The Exploits of Elaine z1915--Theda Bara became new movie archetype: the “vamp,” the first tempting sex symbol

21 Thomas Harper Ince zDeveloped the “factory-studio system” to mass produce films zSupervised Bison Company (Inceville) a 20,000 acre ranch in the Santa Ynez Canyon zPrototype for Hollywood studio: studio head, directors, production staff, writers under one organization (the unit system) zDied 1924, mysteriously, on Hearst’s yacht (See the 2002 film The Cat’s Meow)

22 Keystone and Mack Sennett zTrademark slapstick comedies zCanadian vaudevillian Mack Sennett, the “King of Comedy” z1913--first of the Keystone Comedies z1914--Tillie’s Punctured Romance--first American feature-length comedy


24 Charlie Chaplin: the Tramp zFirst truly great film star zBritish vaudevillian zApprentice to Sennett in 1913 zEstablished familiar tramp character with characteristic walk in The Tramp (1915) z1917--first million-dollar contract

25 Griffith’s Landmark Epics z1915--Birth of a Nation zBeautifully-structured battle scenes zRevolutionary techniques: dollying, masking, irises, flashbacks, cross-cuts z1916--Intolerance zFour interwoven stories of intolerance (modern, medieval, Judean, Babylonian)

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