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Social Facilitation Social loafing Collective behavior Brainstorming

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Presentation on theme: "Social Facilitation Social loafing Collective behavior Brainstorming"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Facilitation Social loafing Collective behavior Brainstorming
4/14/2017 Performance in Groups Social Facilitation Social loafing Collective behavior Brainstorming Task Performance in Groups

2 4/14/2017 Activity Task: Using two pencils in one hand (like chopsticks) individually pick up jellybeans from one cup and place them in the other cup. Task Performance in Groups

3 Triplett’s (1898) study Triplett
4/14/2017 Triplett’s (1898) study Triplett Noticed bicyclists performed better when riding with others Study with children performing simple task either alone or with others. Results: Children performed better when in the presence of others compared to when alone Task Performance in Groups

4 4/14/2017 I. Social Facilitation Enhancement and impairment performance effects resulting from the presence of one or more persons Social facilitation: Performance enhancement Social inhibition: Performance impairment Task Performance in Groups

5 The Scope of Social Facilitation
4/14/2017 The Scope of Social Facilitation Many contradictory findings: Sometimes people performed better in the presence of others and sometimes people performed worse Interest in social facilitation dwindled (40’s & 50’s) Zajonc integrated the divergent results Distinction between dominant and nondominant responses Task Performance in Groups

6 Social Facilitation a la Zajonc
4/14/2017 Social Facilitation a la Zajonc Dominant response: Well-learned or instinctive behaviors that the organism has practiced and is primed to perform Nondominant response: Novel, complicated, or untried behaviors that the organism has never performed (or performed infrequently) Presence of others increases our tendency to perform dominant responses Task Performance in Groups

7 Research Examples Cockroach study (Zajonc et al. 1969) :
4/14/2017 Research Examples Cockroach study (Zajonc et al. 1969) : Not limited to humans! Cockroaches performed simple or difficult task Runway or maze Measured speed when alone or with fellow roaches present Presence of other roaches facilitated performance on easy task and hampered it on difficult task Task Performance in Groups

8 4/14/2017 Cockroach study Seconds Task Performance in Groups

9 Research Examples Pool room study (Michaels et al., 1982)
4/14/2017 Research Examples Pool room study (Michaels et al., 1982) Players identified as above or below average Research team of 4 approached the table and observed playing Found classic facilitation/inhibition effects Task Performance in Groups

10 4/14/2017 Pool room study % shots made Task Performance in Groups

11 The Social Facilitation Effect
4/14/2017 The Social Facilitation Effect Performance Improves Know the task well Perform task in presence of audience Do not know the task well Performance Declines Task Performance in Groups 4

12 Why Does Social Facilitation Occur?
4/14/2017 Why Does Social Facilitation Occur? Three basic processes highlighted: Arousal Evaluation apprehension Distraction-conflict theory Task Performance in Groups

13 Presence of Other People Increased arousal Evaluation Apprehension
4/14/2017 Increased arousal Evaluation Apprehension Social Facilitation of Dominant Responses Presence of Other People Cognitive conflict Distraction Task Performance in Groups

14 II. Social Loafing Ringlemann effect Social loafing
4/14/2017 II. Social Loafing Ringlemann effect Social loafing Members work below their potential when in a group i.e., people getting lazy in groups Task Performance in Groups

15 The Social Loafing Effect
4/14/2017 The Social Loafing Effect High The greater the number of people who work on a group task, the smaller the contribution any one member of the group will make Amount of Individual Effort Exerted Low One person working alone Small groups Large groups Number of People Working Task Performance in Groups 5

16 Research Example Shouting experiment (Latane, Williams, Harkins)
4/14/2017 Research Example Shouting experiment (Latane, Williams, Harkins) SS separated into rooms with headphones Led to believe they were shouting alone or with others Results: Groups of 2 shouted at 66% capacity Groups of 6 at 36% capacity People exhibit a sizable decrease in individual effort when performing in groups compared to alone Task Performance in Groups

17 Ways to Reduce Social Loafing
4/14/2017 Ways to Reduce Social Loafing Identify individual performance. Form smaller work groups. More task structure and specialized roles Direct and immediate feedback Increased personal involvement Group cohesion Task Performance in Groups

18 III. Collective Behavior
4/14/2017 III. Collective Behavior Task Performance in Groups

19 Collective Behavior Deindividuation:
4/14/2017 Collective Behavior Deindividuation: Loss of sense of individuality. This loss reduces constraints against "deviant" behavior. Conditions promoting deindividuation When you feel anonymous; unlikely to be caught When environment focuses your attention away from the self Task Performance in Groups

20 Zimbardo’s (1969) Model of Deindividuation
4/14/2017 Zimbardo’s (1969) Model of Deindividuation Crowd  Reduced self-awareness  Disinhibition Reduced accountability Input Variables Anonymity Shared/diffused responsibility Group size Arousal Sensory input overload Physical involvement in the act Novel and unstructured situations Altered consciousness through drugs, alcohol Output behaviour Emotional, impulsive, irrational, regressive and extreme behaviour Uncontrolled behaviour Distorted memory/ perception Hyper-responsiveness to immediate surroundings Liking for group Destruction of traditional forms and structures Subjective changes Decreased self-observation and -evaluation Decreased Concern for social evaluation Task Performance in Groups

21 Classic Studies Focused on anonymity and its effects 4/14/2017
Task Performance in Groups

22 Research Examples 4/14/2017 Task Performance in Groups

23 Research Examples Trick or treat study (Diener et al. 1976)
4/14/2017 Research Examples Trick or treat study (Diener et al. 1976) Children trick or treated alone or in group 1/2 Trick or treating children asked name; other 1/2 not All children given the opportunity to steal extra candy Task Performance in Groups

24 Trick or Treat Study % transgressing 4/14/2017
Task Performance in Groups

25 Another Account of Collective Behavior
4/14/2017 Another Account of Collective Behavior Social Identity explanation: In the crowd the person doesn’t lose a sense of individuality rather the person transitions from a personal identity to a social identity Social identity When social identity is made salient, people internalize group norms as their own. If group members behave normatively, collective behavior results. Task Performance in Groups

26 Research Examples KKK vs. nurses study (Johnson & Downing 1979)
4/14/2017 Research Examples KKK vs. nurses study (Johnson & Downing 1979) Participants identified by name or anonymous Participants wore KKK or nurses costumes Then given opportunity to shock Task Performance in Groups

27 “Deindividuation Effects” Depend on Normative Cues
4/14/2017 “Deindividuation Effects” Depend on Normative Cues Task Performance in Groups

28 Collective Behavior Explanations Compared
4/14/2017 Collective Behavior Explanations Compared DEINDIVIDUATION Cause: Anonymity, arousal, noise, other external factors demanding attention Process: Loss of identity, decreased (self) awareness Outcome: Disinhibition, anti-normative behavior, suggestibility SOCIAL IDENTITY Cause: Factors inducing identity salience Process: Transition from individual to social identity Outcome: Normative behavior, responsiveness to group norms Task Performance in Groups

29 4/14/2017 Task Performance in Groups

30 4/14/2017 Brainstorming Brainstorming groups often create fewer ideas than individuals because: social loafing blocking (because of waiting turns, ppl forget ideas or decide not to share) evaluation apprehension social matching (lower standards of performance are matched) What can be more effective? Task Performance in Groups

31 Brainstorming Exercise Page 302
4/14/2017 Brainstorming Exercise Page 302 "Each year a great many Americans go to Europe to visit. Now suppose that Americans want to entice Europeans to come to America. What steps would you suggest to get more Europeans to visit America?" Task Performance in Groups

32 Post Performance Review
4/14/2017 Post Performance Review 1. How many ideas do you think you, as an individual, generated while brainstorming? 2. In general, do you believe you would produce more ideas alone or by brainstorming in a group? 3. In general, do you believe you would produce more creative ideas by alone or by brainstorming in a group? 4. Evaluate the process your group used to generate its ideas. a. Did the production of ideas change over time? b. Did some individuals in the group produce more than others? c. Did your group follow the rules of brainstorming? 5. Did any of the following coordination and motivational factors influence your group's performance? a. Social loafing b. Evaluation apprehension c. Blocking d. Social matching Task Performance in Groups


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